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Flashcards in week 2 Deck (61):
1

what are the 4 Qi or Temperature Characteristics (5 designations)

1. hot (re)
2. cold (han)
3. warm (wen)
4. cool (liang)
5. neutral (ping)

2

Temperature sequence

Hot -> Warm -> Slightly Warm (wei wen) -> NEUTRAL -> Slightly Cold (wei han) -> Cool -> Cold

3

acrid/pungent/spicy

1. what is the pin yin?
2. direction?
3. which channel does it enter?
4. what is it's function?

1. xin
2. disperse and move (out & upward); moving & circulation
3. enters LUNG
4. release exterior
-can also be great qi regulator and help dampness or pain (stasis.stagnation)

4

sweet

1. what is the pin yin?
2. which channel does it enter?
3. what is it's function?
4. what should one be careful with sweet?

1. gan
2. enters SPLEEN

3. tonify, harmonize and are sometimes thought to moisten
-relives tension (stomachache, spasm & pain)

4. can normalize fx of ST and SP, but caution with SP Qi def. and dampness
-richness, stickiness, thickness - blocks qi - creates stagnation leading to dampness

5

bitter

1. what is the pin yin?
2. direction?
3. which channel does it enter?
4. what is it's function?

1. ku
2. downward drain/purging (promote bowel; purge heat/fire; descend qi for vomiting, nausea, belching

3. enters HEART

4. dry dampness
-descend, so has sedating effect

6

sour

1. what is the pin yin?
2. direction?
3. which channel does it enter?
4. what is it's function?

5. combined with sweet taste, what does it produce?

1. suan
2. astringe / hold/ contract
-stops movt and can move backwards

3. enters LIVER

4. prevent or reverse the abnormal leakage of fluids & energy (contains fluid & liquid)
-can refresh and improve appetite as well, when used appropriately

5. stomach yin - preserve yin (with sweet can produce yin and body fluids)

7

salty

1. what is the pin yin?
2. direction?
3. which channel does it enter?
4. what is it's function?
5. what are examples of salty substances?

1. xian

2. purge downwards for constipation

3. tends to enter KIDNEY

4. soften hardness

5. heaviest substances besides minerals
-all seaweeds
-many animal products

8

bland

1. what is the pin yin?
2. direction?
3. what is it's function?

1. dan (no taste)
2. has downward direction, but milder than bitter or salty

3. leach out dampness and promote urination
-diuretic influence (edema)

9

aromatic

1. what is the pin yin?
2. direction?
3. what is it capable of doing?
4. it is stronger than?

1. xiang
2. moves in all direction

3. to penetrate through turbidity and revive a particular function (digestive system)
-penetrates through turbidity (if closed or blocked)
-eliminates damp (rheumatism)

4. stronger than acrid (which moves up and out)

10

astringent

1. what is the pin yin?
2. it is capable of...?
3. which tastes does it include?
4. what herbs have astringent effect?
5. what are cautions when using this taste?

1. se
2. has the ability to prevent the leakage of fluids
-retains & binds
(like a coat on tongue and sucking feeling)

3. includes sour & sweet

4. charring herbs

5. caution: could hold in pathology and trap it in - esp. with exterior invasion

11

which taste combination produce YANG

acrid/pungent + Sweet

12

which taste combination can produce YIN

sour + Sweet

13

Li Dong Yuan wrote in "Discussion of Spleen and Stomach (Pi wei lun) that each herb tends to either:

rise, fall, float, or sink

14

floating and ascending herb properties (name 7)

-expel superficial evils
-ascend yang
-expel wind and cold
-induce vomiting
-open orifices (coma-closed orifice)
-promote eruptions (measles)
-warming yang

15

sink and lowering herb properties (name 9)

-clear heat
-purging
-promoting urination
-calming mind
-descending yang
-stop vomiting
-stop cough and asthma
-astringent
-promote digestion

16

what is the functions of herbs

primary actions of herb
(ex: clears heat)

17

what is indications?

symptoms such as fever, flushed face, etc.

18

what are the 8 therapeutic methods (ba fa)

1. promote sweating (han fa)
2. clear heat (qing fa)
3. purge (xia fa)
4. harmonize (he fa)
5. warm (wen fa)
6. tonify (bu fa)
7. reduce / sedate (xiao fa)
8. induce vomiting (tu fa)

19

how do pathogens enter the body

via skin or 9 orifices

20

pathogens are eliminated via...

skin
mouth
bowels
urine

21

to treat an indication one must choose an herb based on its (4)...

function
channels entered
temperature
taste

22

how do you come up with your formula (5)?

symptoms -> diagnosis -> treatment principle -> prescription

23

what are the cautions and contraindications regarding temperature?

- don't use cooling herb when there is pathogenic cold
-don't clear heat when there is a cold condition

24

what are the pathogenic factors of cautions and contraindications

-don't use herbs that drain damp, when there is dryness
-don't use astringing & binding when a patient needs purging
-caution with using tonifying herbs or astringing herbs when there is an exterior pathogen present

25

what does dosage refer to?

the daily amount of each herb for an adult, and also relative amount of different herbs in formula
-refers to decoction
-refers to dry, prepared herbs

26

what is the classical measurement?

qian

27

what is the modern measurement?

grams

28

what is the most common dosage range?

3 - 12 grams

29

what herbs are typically higher dose? lower dose?

-hard, heavy, moderate and bland substances are prescribed in larger dosages
-minerals and shells are usually prescribed at higher dosages
-light, toxic, and strongly-flavored substances are used in smaller dosages
-flowers, leaves and aromatic herbs - usually small dosages are used

30

what other factors are involved in dosage?

-severity of problem
-constitution of patient and patient's stomach qi

31

what are adulterants?

herbs that are commonly used interchangeably with the standard substance

32

the upper jiao is governed by... and refers to

LUNG
heaven

33

middle jiao is governed by... and refers to

SPLEEN
man

34

lower jiao is governed by... and refers to

KIDNEY
earth

35

according to the WEN BING THEORY the 4 levels of diseases are

-wei: exterior/defense level
-qi: exterior heat disease
-ying: nutritive or construction - deeper
-xue: blood - deepest heat in the body

36

what are the 6 evils

wind
heat/fire
cold
damp
dryness
summerheat

37

what are the 7 emotions

sadness/grief/sorrow
pensiveness/brooding/over thinking
joy
anger
anxiety
fear
rright/shock

38

mutual accentuation

(xiang xu)
combination of 2 substances with SIMILAR functions to accentuate their therapeutic actions

39

mutual enhancement

(xiang shi)
combination of 2 or more substances with different actions in which one of the substances ENHANCES the effect of the other in a specific clinical situation

40

mutual counteractions

(xiang wei)
combination in which the toxicity or side effects of one substance are reduced or eliminated by another substance

41

mutual suppression

(xiang sha)
converse of mutual counteraction in that here one substance also reduces the undesirable side effects of another

42

mutual antagonism

(xiang wu)
ability of 2 substances to minimize or neutralize each other's pos effects

43

mutual incompatibility

(xiang fan)
occurs when the combination of 2 substances gives rise to side effects or toxicity which would not be caused by either substance when used alone

44

single effect

(dan xing)
used of one medicinal substance to treat a patient (i.e. Ren Shen)

45

CHIEF (King, Sovereign or Lord)

the substance that provides the main therapeutic thrust of the prescription

46

DEPUTIES (Ministers or Associates)

enhance or assist the therapeutic actions of the chief

47

ASSISTANTS (Adjutants)

provide one or more of the following functions:
-treat accompanying symptoms
-moderate the harshness or toxicity of the primary substances
-assist the chief and deputies in accomplishing their main objectivity
-provide assistance from another therapeutic direction

48

ENVOY (Messenger or Couriers)

either guide the other medicines to a specific channel or organ, or exert a harmonizing influence, as is often the case with Gan Cao

49

Gong bu

simultaneous attack and reinforcement, often seen in patterns of excess with underlying deficiency (ex. Zi Su Ye with Ren Shen)

50

hong
hong hua

red
red flower

51

chi
chi shao

bright red
bright red peony

52

zhu
zhu sha

dull red
dull red sand

53

huang
da huang

yellow
big yellow

54

jin
jin yin hua

gold
gold/silver flower

55

bai
bai shao

white
white peony

56

yin
yin guo ye

silver
silver fruit leaf

57

qing
qing pi

blue-green
blue green peel

58

lu
lu dou

green
green beans

59

hei
hei zao

black
black dates

60

wu

black

61

zi
zi cao gen

purple
purple herb root