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Flashcards in week 3 - annie Deck (60)
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1

what standards must herbs meet in the official Chinese Pharmacopoeia?

- ash content
- loss on drying
- content of extract
- content of volatile oil
- content of a particular constituent

2

what natural + man-made contaminants can make herbs unfit for consumption?

free of:
- mold
- microbes
- pesticides
- heavy metals

3

what is Pao Zhi?

general term for any type of herb processing

4

how to increase an herb's surface area?
why do this?

- slice or pulverize it, to increase surface area and facilitate extraction + digestion
- slicing shapes an herb into a standard size + weight
- pulverizing is often used for minerals + shells

5

why are herbs prepared?

- increase potency
- direct its actions to a certain place
- minimize side effects
- increase or alter properties of an herb

6

defatting:
why? used for what substances?

- removes oils
- reduces side effects + toxicity
- often used for grains + seeds

7

aqueous trituration:
what is it? used for what?

- grinds minerals with water until they are reduced to an extremely fine powder
- often used for ophthalmalogical preparations

8

6 methods utilizing heat to prepare an herb

1. dry frying (chao)
2. frying with liquids (zhi)
3. calcining (duan)
4. quick-frying (pao)
5. dry curing or baking (hong or bei)
6. roasting in ashes (wei)

9

dry frying + browning herbs:
why?

- used to dry herbs for storage
- increases Spleen-awakening + Stomach-strengthening actions

10

dry frying with salt:
why?

directs action downward to the Kidneys

11

dry frying until charred:
why?

increases hemostatic ability (helps stop bleeding)

12

frying with honey:
why?

increases tonifying + moistening actions

13

frying with vinegar:
why?

enhances astringent, analgesic, blood-invigorating + detoxifying actions

14

frying with wine:
why?

enhances ability to clear blockages from the channels, expel wind + alleviate pain

15

frying with ginger juice:
why?

- reduces the tendency of bitter + cold herbs to upset the Stomach
- may enhance an herb's ability to warm the Stomach + stop vomiting

16

calcining:
what is it? why? used for what substances?

- places a substance directly or indirectly in the flames until it is thoroughly heated + turns red
- makes the substance brittle + easy to pulverize
- commonly used for minerals + shells

17

quick-frying:
what is it? why?

- fries a substance at an extremely high temperature until it is dark brown or cracked
- reduces toxicity or moderates harsh characteristics

18

dry curing or baking:
what is it? used for what substances?

- uses slow, mild heat to avoid charring
- often done with flowers or insects, which are more delicate

19

roasting in ashes:
what is it?

wrap an herb in moistened paper, paste, or mud before heating it in hot cinders until the coating is charred or cracked, and its insides have reached a high temperature

20

4 methods utilizing both heat + water to prepare an herb

1. steaming (zheng)
2. boiling (zhu)
3. quenching (cui)
4. simmering (ao)

21

steaming:
what is it? why?

- steam + then dry the herbs in the sun
- increases moisture + heat

22

how many times do we steam Sheng Di Huang to transform it into Shu Di Huang?

9 times
(Sheng Di Huang is in the clear heat, cool blood category; Shu Di Huang is in the tonify yin + blood category)

23

boiling:
what is it? why?

- mostly boiled in water but could also be boiled in another medium, such as vinegar
- alters an herb's characteristics or toxicity

24

quenching:
what is it? why?

- heat + then immediately immerse a substance in cold water or vinegar
- often used with minerals to facilitate pulverization + moderate their properties

25

simmering:
what is it? what is the end product?

- reduces herb to a thickened liquid, syrup, or gel
- use low heat over a long period of time: boil in several changes of water, collect the supernatants, then condense + solidify into a gel

26

7 methods of delivery for herbs

1. decoctions
2. drafts
3. pills
4. powders
5. syrups
6. plasters
7. wines

27

strongest method of delivery?

decoctions are the strongest way to administer herbs (aside from injections)

28

decoction:
what is it?

- literally means "soup" (tang)
- decoctions are solutions + suspensions that are readily absorbed, thus expediting their effect
- commonly used for acute conditions

29

general guidelines for preparing a decoction

- do not use aluminum pots or cooking utensils (bc they can have a chemical effect on herbs)
- better to use corning ware, porcelain pots, or ceramic pots
- use a tight fitting lid

30

3 solvents used for decoction + what functions they enhance

1. water - most common
2. wine - invigorates the Blood
3. vinegar - astringent