Neurodegenerative Diseases Flashcards Preview

Biology of The Mind > Neurodegenerative Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neurodegenerative Diseases Deck (18):
0

Give the four neurodegenerative diseases studies?

Alzheimer's, Huntingdon's, multiple sclerosis and Parkingson's

1

Give the facts on Alzheimer's?

Disease of ageing, memory loss and dementia

2

Give a) early, b) later and c) late symptoms of Alzheimer's?

A) short term memory loss, disorientation, clumsiness, problems with visuospatial orientation and words/numbers/names
B) loss of social skills, psychosis and paranoia, rigidity (bradykinesia)
C) mutism, incontinence and bedridden

3

What happens to the gyri and sulci in Alzheimer's?

Gyri narrow and sulci widen

4

What part of the brain are majorly effected in Alzheimer's?

The hippocampus

5

What proteins build up in Alzheimer's?

Tau protein forms neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid ß protein forms plaques

6

Which pathways are particular effected and suffer from neuronal loss in Alzheimer's?

Cholinergic pathways

7

How is Alzheimer's treated?

Based on AChE inhibitors, try to increase acetylcholine levels which may slow progression and improve cognition

8

What are the symptoms of MS?

Sensory changes, muscle weaknesses, cooordination and balance, speech, swallowing, visual, fatigue, pain, incontinence, cognitive impairment, depression and mood swings.

9

What are the different forms of progression of MS?

Progressive-relapsing: steady decline with superimposed attacks
Secondary progressive: initial relapsing which suddenly become decline without relapses
Primary progressive: continuous decline with no attacks
Relapsing-remitting: unpredictable attacks lead by periods of remission

10

What is the cause of MS?

Oligodendrocytes are effected causes a degradation of the myelin sheath

11

What is parking sons disease?

An extrapyramidal disorder- loss of movement, shakiness and increased muscle tone

12

What are the symptoms of parkingsons disease?

Tremor, rigidity, speech problems, micrographia (tiny handwriting), akinesia, postural changes (stoop and shuffling)

13

What part of the brain is diminished in parkingsons?

The substantia nigra

14

What is Huntingdon's disease?

An inherited, autosomal dominant disorder

15

What causes Huntingdon's?

Polyglutamine repeat, huntingtin protein

16

What are the symptoms of Huntingdon's?

Irritability, moodiness, antisocial behaviour, fidgeting and restlessness

17

Where are the loss of neurones in Huntingdon's?

Cerebral cortex and corpus striatum