Flashcards in Neurodegenerative Diseases Deck (18)
Give the four neurodegenerative diseases studies?
Alzheimer's, Huntingdon's, multiple sclerosis and Parkingson's
Give the facts on Alzheimer's?
Disease of ageing, memory loss and dementia
Give a) early, b) later and c) late symptoms of Alzheimer's?
A) short term memory loss, disorientation, clumsiness, problems with visuospatial orientation and words/numbers/names
B) loss of social skills, psychosis and paranoia, rigidity (bradykinesia)
C) mutism, incontinence and bedridden
What happens to the gyri and sulci in Alzheimer's?
Gyri narrow and sulci widen
What part of the brain are majorly effected in Alzheimer's?
What proteins build up in Alzheimer's?
Tau protein forms neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid ß protein forms plaques
Which pathways are particular effected and suffer from neuronal loss in Alzheimer's?
How is Alzheimer's treated?
Based on AChE inhibitors, try to increase acetylcholine levels which may slow progression and improve cognition
What are the symptoms of MS?
Sensory changes, muscle weaknesses, cooordination and balance, speech, swallowing, visual, fatigue, pain, incontinence, cognitive impairment, depression and mood swings.
What are the different forms of progression of MS?
Progressive-relapsing: steady decline with superimposed attacks
Secondary progressive: initial relapsing which suddenly become decline without relapses
Primary progressive: continuous decline with no attacks
Relapsing-remitting: unpredictable attacks lead by periods of remission
What is the cause of MS?
Oligodendrocytes are effected causes a degradation of the myelin sheath
What is parking sons disease?
An extrapyramidal disorder- loss of movement, shakiness and increased muscle tone
What are the symptoms of parkingsons disease?
Tremor, rigidity, speech problems, micrographia (tiny handwriting), akinesia, postural changes (stoop and shuffling)
What part of the brain is diminished in parkingsons?
The substantia nigra
What is Huntingdon's disease?
An inherited, autosomal dominant disorder
What causes Huntingdon's?
Polyglutamine repeat, huntingtin protein
What are the symptoms of Huntingdon's?
Irritability, moodiness, antisocial behaviour, fidgeting and restlessness