Flashcards in Other Nervous System Disorders Deck (22)
Give four disorders of the CNS?
Schizophrenia, bipolar disease, depression and anxiety
What are the symptoms of schizophrenia?
Positive: Hallucinations, delusions, thought disorder, abnormal/disorganised behaviour, aggression.
Negative: social withdrawal, flattening of emotional response, anhedonia, disinterest, cognitive deficits, guilt, depression, self harm
What sort of hallucinations can you have with schizophrenia?
All senses, particularly voices
What do delusions in schizophrenia often cause?
What can thought disorder in schizophrenia cause?
Loosening of association and speech/language problems
What symptoms do younger patients often have?
Positive whereas older patients often have negative
What are the causes of schizophrenia?
Genetics, environmental (maternal famine, stress and viral infection or cannabis consumption or urbanisation)
What is thought to be the mechanism of schizophrenia?
The dopamine turnover hypothesis, increased DA leads to psychosis. Increase in mesolimbic pathway causes positive symptoms. Decrease in mesolimbic pathway causes negative symptoms.
Also NMDA receptors involved
What is lost in schizophrenia?
What is bipolar previously known as?
Manic depression or bipolar affective disorder
How is bipolar characterised?
By mood swings: mania and depression
Give some features of mania?
Increased activity and restlessness, excessive euphoria, irritability, lack of concentration, racing thoughts, insomnia, unrealistic beliefs, poor judgment, spending sprees, increased sex drive, abuse of drugs, provocative/intuitive/aggressive behaviour, denial
Give some features of depression?
Lasting sad/anxious/empty mood, feeling hopeless/guilty/worthless, loss of interest and pleasure, decreased energy, difficulty concentrating/remembering, restlessness and irritability, sleeping too much or not being able to sleep, change in appetite, chronic pain, thoughts of death/suicide
What are causes of bipolar?
Genetics, environment, dopamine/serotonin/Glutamine systems effected
What is the most common affective disorder?
What is the theory that causes depression?
Mono amine theory- decreased function of serotonin and NA systems
What is high in depression?
Plasma cortisol and corticotrophin-releasing hormone
What are the changes in the brain in depression?
Ventricular enlargement, hippocampus shrinkage, reduced neuronal activity, prefrontal atrophy
How is depression treated?
By monoamine uptake inhibition, monoamine receptor antagonists, monoamine oxidase inhibitors.
What are the fear responses in anxiety disorders?
Defensive behaviours, autonomic reflexes, arousal/alertness, corticosteroid secretion, negative emotions
Give the 5 anxiety disorders?
Generalised anxiety, OCD, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social phobia