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Flashcards in Other Nervous System Disorders Deck (22):
0

Give four disorders of the CNS?

Schizophrenia, bipolar disease, depression and anxiety

1

What are the symptoms of schizophrenia?

Positive: Hallucinations, delusions, thought disorder, abnormal/disorganised behaviour, aggression.

Negative: social withdrawal, flattening of emotional response, anhedonia, disinterest, cognitive deficits, guilt, depression, self harm

2

What sort of hallucinations can you have with schizophrenia?

All senses, particularly voices

3

What do delusions in schizophrenia often cause?

Paranoia

4

What can thought disorder in schizophrenia cause?

Loosening of association and speech/language problems

5

What symptoms do younger patients often have?

Positive whereas older patients often have negative

6

What are the causes of schizophrenia?

Genetics, environmental (maternal famine, stress and viral infection or cannabis consumption or urbanisation)

7

What is thought to be the mechanism of schizophrenia?

The dopamine turnover hypothesis, increased DA leads to psychosis. Increase in mesolimbic pathway causes positive symptoms. Decrease in mesolimbic pathway causes negative symptoms.

Also NMDA receptors involved

8

What is lost in schizophrenia?

Grey matter

9

What is bipolar previously known as?

Manic depression or bipolar affective disorder

10

How is bipolar characterised?

By mood swings: mania and depression

11

Give some features of mania?

Increased activity and restlessness, excessive euphoria, irritability, lack of concentration, racing thoughts, insomnia, unrealistic beliefs, poor judgment, spending sprees, increased sex drive, abuse of drugs, provocative/intuitive/aggressive behaviour, denial

12

Give some features of depression?

Lasting sad/anxious/empty mood, feeling hopeless/guilty/worthless, loss of interest and pleasure, decreased energy, difficulty concentrating/remembering, restlessness and irritability, sleeping too much or not being able to sleep, change in appetite, chronic pain, thoughts of death/suicide

13

What are causes of bipolar?

Genetics, environment, dopamine/serotonin/Glutamine systems effected

14

What is the most common affective disorder?

Depression

15

What is the theory that causes depression?

Mono amine theory- decreased function of serotonin and NA systems

16

What is high in depression?

Plasma cortisol and corticotrophin-releasing hormone

17

What are the changes in the brain in depression?

Ventricular enlargement, hippocampus shrinkage, reduced neuronal activity, prefrontal atrophy

18

How is depression treated?

By monoamine uptake inhibition, monoamine receptor antagonists, monoamine oxidase inhibitors.

19

What are the fear responses in anxiety disorders?

Defensive behaviours, autonomic reflexes, arousal/alertness, corticosteroid secretion, negative emotions

20

Give the 5 anxiety disorders?

Generalised anxiety, OCD, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social phobia

21

How are anxiety disorders treated?

Benzodiazepines, barbiturates, SSRIs/SNRIs, buspirone- all effect GABA/serotonin systems.