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Flashcards in Memory and Learning Deck (48)
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Define learning?

The process of acquiring new information

1

Define memory?

Persistence of learning in a state that can revealed at a later time

2

Define encoding?

Processing of incoming information to be stored

3

Define storage?

The result of acquisition and consolidation; creation and maintenance of a permanent record

4

Define retrieval?

Utilisation of stored information to create a conscious representation or to execute a learned behaviour

5

What does memory split into?

Short term/working memory and long term

6

Hat does long term memory further divide into?

Declarative and non-declarative

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What are the two divisions of declarative, long-term memory which mean a) events and b) facts?

Episodic and semantic

8

What are the subdivisions of non-declarative, long-term memory?

Priming, skills/habits, associate conditioning which is split into skeletal musculature and emotional response.

9

Give the three memory mechanisms?

Sensory, long-term and short-term

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Give an example of a sensory memory mechanism?

Recalling a sentence you are not paying attention to listening

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What is a) visual and b) echoic memory in the sensory memory mechanism?

Visual-iconic and audition- echoic

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Which memory mechanism is the quickest?

Sensory, then short then long

13

Give and example of a short term memory mechanism?

Remembering a phone number given by a friend before trying to dial it
-around a 7 item digit span

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Give an example of a long term memory mechanism?

Recalling an event from childhood

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How is short term memory made to last longer?

Through rehearsal

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What is the process of changing short to long and long to short?

Short to long is encoding and long to short is retrieval

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What is the capacity of the short term memory?

Limited.
5-9 item span.

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What is a memorist?

An individual with a remarkable memory. Most commonly for numbers. They use locational digit matching and visual imagery techniques to remember.

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What is a working memory model?

A central executive mechanism which controls 2 subcoordinate systems in rehearsal

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What is central executive?

Command and control centre

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What is the phonological loop?

Mechanism for acoustically coding information in working memory.

22

What is a visual spatial sketch pad?

Information storage in visual or visual spatial codes

23

What are the two subcoordinate systems involved in rehearsal?

Phonological loop and visual partial sketch pad

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What part of the brain effects visuospatial performance?

The parieto-occipital regions of both hemispheres

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What part of the brain effects the phonological loop?

The left supra-marginal gyrus and left promoter region

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What is another term for long term memory?

Explicit memory.

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How is long term memory recalled?

By conscious effort

28

What is a recollection of an emotionally charged event?

A flashbulb memory.

Usually vivid, a form of long term memory, high confidence of the more but not necessarily very accurate

29

Where are long term memory brain systems formed?

Hippocampus, mammillary body, dorsal thalamus and rhinal cortex