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Biology of The Mind > Memory and Learning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Memory and Learning Deck (48):
0

Define learning?

The process of acquiring new information

1

Define memory?

Persistence of learning in a state that can revealed at a later time

2

Define encoding?

Processing of incoming information to be stored

3

Define storage?

The result of acquisition and consolidation; creation and maintenance of a permanent record

4

Define retrieval?

Utilisation of stored information to create a conscious representation or to execute a learned behaviour

5

What does memory split into?

Short term/working memory and long term

6

Hat does long term memory further divide into?

Declarative and non-declarative

7

What are the two divisions of declarative, long-term memory which mean a) events and b) facts?

Episodic and semantic

8

What are the subdivisions of non-declarative, long-term memory?

Priming, skills/habits, associate conditioning which is split into skeletal musculature and emotional response.

9

Give the three memory mechanisms?

Sensory, long-term and short-term

10

Give an example of a sensory memory mechanism?

Recalling a sentence you are not paying attention to listening

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What is a) visual and b) echoic memory in the sensory memory mechanism?

Visual-iconic and audition- echoic

12

Which memory mechanism is the quickest?

Sensory, then short then long

13

Give and example of a short term memory mechanism?

Remembering a phone number given by a friend before trying to dial it
-around a 7 item digit span

14

Give an example of a long term memory mechanism?

Recalling an event from childhood

15

How is short term memory made to last longer?

Through rehearsal

16

What is the process of changing short to long and long to short?

Short to long is encoding and long to short is retrieval

17

What is the capacity of the short term memory?

Limited.
5-9 item span.

18

What is a memorist?

An individual with a remarkable memory. Most commonly for numbers. They use locational digit matching and visual imagery techniques to remember.

19

What is a working memory model?

A central executive mechanism which controls 2 subcoordinate systems in rehearsal

20

What is central executive?

Command and control centre

21

What is the phonological loop?

Mechanism for acoustically coding information in working memory.

22

What is a visual spatial sketch pad?

Information storage in visual or visual spatial codes

23

What are the two subcoordinate systems involved in rehearsal?

Phonological loop and visual partial sketch pad

24

What part of the brain effects visuospatial performance?

The parieto-occipital regions of both hemispheres

25

What part of the brain effects the phonological loop?

The left supra-marginal gyrus and left promoter region

26

What is another term for long term memory?

Explicit memory.

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How is long term memory recalled?

By conscious effort

28

What is a recollection of an emotionally charged event?

A flashbulb memory.

Usually vivid, a form of long term memory, high confidence of the more but not necessarily very accurate

29

Where are long term memory brain systems formed?

Hippocampus, mammillary body, dorsal thalamus and rhinal cortex

30

Where is long term memory brain systems stored?

In the neocortex and the frontal vortices on the dorsolateral and anteriolateral aspects.

31

What are the four curiosities of memory?.

Olfaction, music, memory training, age

32

What do certain smells do?

Invoke memories from years ago as the olfactory cortex is linked to the hippocampus and amygdala

33

What is thought to improve memory?

Musical training, or listening to music

34

Research is ongoing into daily memory training and synaptic plasticity, give examples of daily memory training activities?

Sudoku, crosswords, scrabble etc

35

Does memory improve or decline with age?

Decline

36

Why does memory differ with age?

There's a decrease in the number of synapses

37

What is another way to say non-declarative long term memory?

Procedural or implicit memory

38

How are skills and associations acquired in non-declarative memory?

Mainly at an unconscious level

39

Name the 2 non-declarative memory systems?

Non-associative and associative

40

What is the non-associative non-declarative memory system?

A change in motor response after repeated presentation to a stimuli

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What are the two subgroups of the non-associative, non-declarative memory system?

Habituation and sensitisation. Habituation is a decrease in response and sensitisation is an increase.

42

What are the two subgroups of the associative, non-declarative memory system?

Classical conditioning- a change in passive motor response after a learned association between two stimuli.
Instrumental or operant conditioning- change in active motor response after association between motor action and reward

43

What are the brain system underlying procedural long term memory?

Basal ganglia, prefrontal cortex, amygdala, sensory association cortex and the cerebellum

44

What is amnesia?

The pathological process of forgetting

45

What are the two types of amnesia?

Anterograde- inability to establish new memories

Retrograde- difficulty in retrieving memories

46

What can synaptic plasticity do?

Enhance or decrease the strength of a synapse

47

What causes synaptic plasticity?

Long term potention or depression in CA1