Flashcards in Higher Cognitive Functions Deck (22)
Where are the cortices?
In the frontal, temporal and parietal lobe
What do association cortices receive?
The input directly from other cortical areas. Insilateral and interhemispheric cortico-cortical connections. Also, highly processed info from primary sensory and motor areas via the thalamic nuclei and subcortical imputs.
The state of selectively processing simultaneous sources of information.
What does attention involve?
Preferential processing of sensory information eg. Visual and auditory
What does attention allow?
Covert shifting and increased reaction time to stimuli.
What is smaller in attention-deficient hyperactivity disorder?
Prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia
What is contralateral neglect syndrome?
Failure to attend to objects in a portion of space
What causes contralateral neglect syndrome?
Lesion in the right parietal cortex
What else is caused by a lesion to the parietal cortex?
What is emotional processing?
Composite of feelings, expressive behaviours and physiological changes.
What is the generation of emotion?
Evaluation, conscious of unconscious experience and expression
How many components does an emotional response consist of? Name them.
3, behavioural, autonomic and hormonal.
What are the brain systems involved in emotions in processing?
Limbic system, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus, thalamus and ventral basal ganglia
What is speech produced by?
Lungs, larynx, pharynx, oral cavity and nasal cavity
What is language?
Speech of a group of people or speech production and comprehension by the brain
Language is both ..... and ....?
Localised and lateralised
Give the areas of the brain involved in language?
Association cortices in the left hemispheres, the Broca's area (left frontal cortex) and the wernickes area (left temporal cortex)
What is aphasias?
Damage to specific brain regions which compromises language functions, without affecting sensory/motor processing.
Give the three types of aphasias and brief descriptions?
Broca's- motor or expressive
Wernickes- sensory or receptive
Conduction- difficulty repeating words
What parts of the brain are important for executive control systems?
Prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, anterior cingulate cortex and posterior parietal cortex.
What is the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex responsible for?
Initiating and shifting behaviour, inhibiting behaviour and simulating behavioural consequences.