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Flashcards in Neuropsych Deck (177)
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33

How does sexual development occur?

Hypothalamus stimulates pituitary gland which produces gonadotropin hormones. These hormones stimulate sex hormones (from tested or ovaries).

Hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG) onset during puberty. Genetically and environmentally programmed.

34

What structures of the brain show sexual dimorphism, or sex related differences in physical appearance?

Found in the size, shape, or volume of corpus collision, hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebellum.

May be due to exposure of testosterone and other androgens in prenatal and early postnatal pd.

35

Discuss the 5 sleep stages.

Go through stages every 90 mins

1--alpha waves..fast, relaxing
Move to slower theta waves
2- theta waves..light sleep
3-slow, large delta waves..transition
4- large, slow delta waves. Deep sleep
5-REM. paradoxical sleep. Hrate and breathing like awake, difficult to wake. Vivid dreams.

Most stage 3, 4 occur early part. REM pds increase in length as nite goes on.

36

What is the pattern of sleep duration over the life span?

First 6 mo.. REM and non REM. during the first 2 or 3 mo..starts with REM.. This reverses.

Total sleep time, stages 3 and 4 sleep, and REM sleep decrease from childhood to adulthood.

Stages 3 and 4; REM continue to decrease through adulthood

Sleep time...newborns...16 hrs
....preadolescents ...10 hrs
Adults...8 or less

Infancy..REM is 50 percent
Adult..REM is 20 percent

Older adults not require total less sleepy than young adults..more trouble falling asleep, wake in nite, experience advanced sleep phase (shift in timing of sleep involves going to sleep earlier and waking earlier)

37

What brain structures are involved in memory?

Hippocampus is involved in memory consolidation (st to ltm)
Amygdala is involved in emotional memories
Prefrontal cortex...working and prospective memory (do in future)
Temporal lobes...stores long term declarative memories.

38



Long term potentiation...first seen in glutamate receptors of hippocampus and later the brain. Hi frequency stimulation of neurons increases sensitivity and structure of dendrites...memories form

Protein synthesis...new ones for LTM and modifyjng pre existing proteins for STM. Administering a drug that blocks protein synthesis or RNA (needed for synthesis) prevents formation of lt memories.

Neural foundations for memory.

39

Papez's circuit was identified as a neural pathway involved in:
A. Fight or flight
B. experience and expression of emotion
C. Onset of puberty
D. Coordination of movement in rt and left sides of body

B. proposed expression of emotion governed by hypothalamus
Experience of emotion is result of interactions among hypothalamus and other structures.

40

What is the difference between sensation and perception?

Sensation is the receipt of info by sensory receptors and translation of info to nerve impulses sent to brain.

Perception is process of becoming aware of and interpreting what has been sensed.

41

What is the visual pathway?

Light waves enter the eye and pass through cornea (transparent cover), pupil (opening in iris; opens and closes to regulate amt of light), and lens (focus light waves on retina at back of eye with 2 types of photoreceptors.

42

Describe the two types of photoreceptors.

Rods--black, white, grey
Periphery of retina
Sensitive to brightness
Sense stimuli in lo lite

Cones--detect color
Cluster center of eye (fovea)
Fx best in bright lt
Greater visual acuity than
Rods

43

What is the blind spot?

Where the optic nerve leaves the retina. There are no photoreceptors.

44

What visual fields are seen by the left hemisphere optic tract?

Right visual field of both eyes.

Optic tract to rt hemisphere carries signals from left visual field of both eyes.

Signals then travel via each optic tract to lateral geniiculate nucleus in thalamus and primary visual cortex in occipital lobe.

45

Explain the young helmhoktz trichromatic theory and compare it to herings opponent process theory.

Trichromatic theory..3 types of color receptors (cones) that respond to a different primary color..red, blue, green. 1 st level of processing in the retina.

Opponent process theory ...3 types of cells (red/ gn, blue/yellow. Black/white). Overall stimulating pattern produces colors. Explains after images .
Second level of processing.

46

In most ppl the right hemisphere is dominant for:
A. Spoken language
B. positive emotions
C. Visual spatial skills
D. All the above

Right hemisphere
Visual spatial relations
Creativity
Holistic thinking
Negative emotions

Left hemisphere..usually dominant
Language
Logic
Analytic thinking
Positive emotions

47

When split brain patients were shown a pic to the left visual field only. What happened?

Pt could not verbally id object or pick or out from many objects w rt hand. Could pick w left hand.

Show pic to right visual field only. Could verbally identify and pick out object w rt hand. Not able to w left.

48

What is getstmanns syndrome?

Caused by lesions in the left parietal lobe.

Agraphia
Acalculia
Finger agnosia
Left rt disorientation

49

What makes up the hind brain? What are their functions and disorders?

Medulla...regulates vital fx....death
Respiration, cardiovascular activity, sleep, consciousness

Pons..connects 2 parts cerebellum
Relays sensory and motor info
Regulates arousal

Cerebellum..balance, coordination, posture...ataxia, tremors, loss of balance

50

What makes up the midbrain? What are their functions and related disorders?

Reticular activating system...sleep wake cycle, screens incoming sensory info...coma

Substantial niagra..voluntary movement and reward seeking...
Parkinson's

51

What makes up the forebrain? What are their functions and related disorders?

Hypothalamus..homeostasis, motivated behaviors, strong feelings into physical responses....
Hormonal/emotional disturbances
Inability regulate eating, drinking, temp

Thalamus..relays sensory info to cortex (not olfaction)...
Language, memory, motor
Hypo or thalamus?
Mammillary bodies damaged (thiamine due drinking) korsakoffs
Suprachasmic nucleus regulates circadian

Basal ganglia..(caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putmen)...voluntary movement, outward emotional expression, sensory movement ...
Tourette's, OCD, ADHD, Parkinson's, schiophrenia, Huntington's.

Limbic system..
Amygdala..integrate emotional rx, emotions attached to sensory, mediated defensive/aggressive behavior...lack emotional response, kluver-bucy
Hippocampus...memory consolidation...Alzheimer's, dementia
Septum, cingulate cortex

52

What areas make up the frontal lobes? What are the functions and related disorders?

Primary cortex
Premotor cortex
Broca's area aphasia
Prefrontal cortex (damage causes dysexecutive syndrome, pseudo depression, pseudopathology, ADHD, bipolar, schizophrenia)

53

What makes up the temporal lobe?
What is the function and related disorders?

Auditory processing (receptive), long term memory, and emotion.

Auditory cortex...auditory agnosia, auditory hallucinations,
Wernicke's area aphasia

54

What does the parietal lobe contain and what are the disorders in this area?

Somatosensory cortex..touch, kinesthesia, pressure, pain, temperature, integrates

Somatosensory agnosia
Apraxia (purposeful movement even with normal fx)
Contra lateral neglect..lack interest one side body
Getstmanns syndrome (ageaphia, acalculia, finger agnosia, left rt disorientation.

55

What does the occipital lobe do and what are common disorders?

Visual processing

Cortical blindness
Blind spots
Loss of depth perception

Jx occipital, temporal, parietal causes prosopagnosia

56

What do the different hemispheres of the cerebral cortex do in regard to emotions?

The left or dominant side is associated with positive emotions. Lesions produce depression, anxiety, fearfulness.

The right or nondominant side is associated with negative emotions, such as apathy, indifference, inappropriate euphoria

57

Describe the James Lang theory of emotion.

Arousal is interpreted as emotion.

Afraid because we tremble.
Sad because we cry

58

Describe the cannon bard theory of arousal.

Simultaneous activity (sympathetic nervous system and cortex)

Arousal and emotion same time.

Sympathetic nervous system produces physical arousal (same for all emotions) while cortex produces emotional feelings.

59

Describe schachter and singers theory of emotion.

Cognitive arousal theory

Combo physical arousal and cognitive attributions for that arousal.

Physical sensations similar for most emotional states.
Specific emotion depends on attribution.

Epinephrine study...environmental cues determine attributions for arousal.

60

How does sexual development occur?

Hypothalamus stimulates pituitary gland which produces gonadotropin hormones. These hormones stimulate sex hormones (from tested or ovaries).

Hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG) onset during puberty. Genetically and environmentally programmed.

61

What structures of the brain show sexual dimorphism, or sex related differences in physical appearance?

Found in the size, shape, or volume of corpus collision, hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebellum.

May be due to exposure of testosterone and other androgens in prenatal and early postnatal pd.

62

Discuss the 5 sleep stages.

Go through stages every 90 mins

1--alpha waves..fast, relaxing
Move to slower theta waves
2- theta waves..light sleep
3-slow, large delta waves..transition
4- large, slow delta waves. Deep sleep
5-REM. paradoxical sleep. Hrate and breathing like awake, difficult to wake. Vivid dreams.

Most stage 3, 4 occur early part. REM pds increase in length as nite goes on.