Flashcards in New Nation Deck (59)
Which president set the precedent for how other president's should act?
Washington. Only 2 terms, have a cabinet, and only veto bills if unconstitutional
What was Washington's standing on military?
He didn't want to use the military in international conflicts because he didn't want to lose the new country. He did believe in using it for domestic purposes though
What was the Whiskey Rebellion?
In Western Pennsylvania, businesses changed corn into whiskey and made good money off of it. When the Federal government put a tax on the whiskey, the people rebelled and Washington used the army to quell the rebellion. This showed that the federal government was strong enough to handle domestic problems
What was the Battle of Falling Timbers?
People are moving west and running into the native Americans who are fighting off the Americans, so Washington uses the army to beat the indians
What is the XYZ affair under John Addams?
The US wants to buy land from the French, and so we sent our secretary of state to negotiate with the French. Napoleon, however, said he would not meet with our secretary of state unless we gave the French money. Americans are outraged the Napoleon would do this, which shows that nationalism is growing in the US. We also start building a navy, and we build new and more effective ships
What did the Alien and Sedition Acts under John Adams do?
This act extended how long immigrants had to wait for citizenship. These acts were passed because immigrants usually were Democrat/Republican and Adams was a Federalist
What did the Sedition Act specifically say?
That those who criticized the government could be punished. This was unconstitutional, but as yet the Supreme Court didn't have the power to deem things unconstitutional or not
What was the Virginia and Kentucky resolution?
These states said that the Sedition Act was unconstitutional and that they would not enforce it
What is the Doctrine of Nullification?
This is where states refuse to follow a law that the central government passes. Virginia and Kentucky used this in the Virginia and Kentucky resolution
What were the important states that ratified the constitution?
Delaware, because it was the first state to ratify it; New Hampshire, because it being the ninth state to ratify it it made the constitution ratified; Rhode Island, because it was the last state to ratify it
Who were the first four Supreme Court justices and why were there four of them in only 10 years?
The first was John Jay, the John Rutlidge, then Oliver Ellisworth, and lastly John Marshall. There were so many because up until John Marshall, the SC justices didn't have any power
Who was John Marshall?
He was a supporter of Alexander Hamilton and a Federalist. He was the Supreme Court Justice under Thomas Jefferson, who was a Democratic/Republican
What is the significance of Marbury vs. Madison?
Based on the outcome of this case, the precedent is set that the Supreme Court can decide if a law is constitutional or not. This is called Judicial Review
What is significant of McCulloch vs. Maryland?
A state case goes to the Supreme Court, and Marshall rules that the law is unconstitutional. This case sets the precedent that the Supreme Court can determine whether state laws are constitutional or not. This leads to the Federal government having more power.
Where is the Old Northwest?
The Ohio Valley
What four countries claim the Oregon territory as their own after the Louisiana Purchase?
Russia, Great Britain, Spain, and the United States
Who maps out the west coast?
Vancouver, whose first mate is Cook
Who is Astoria?
He made the American Fur Company
Who is Whitman?
He was a missionary who converted the Nez-Perce indians to Christianity
What is the Hudson River School of Art?
This was the first American school of art, and mainly consisted of landscapes. This was important as we were developing our own culture
Describe Washington's cabinet
There were only four members: Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson; Secretary of Treasury, Alexander Hamilton; Secretary of War, Knox; Secretary of Justice, Randolf (Sec. of Justice now called Attorney General). Washington knowingly put Hamilton and Jefferson together because they were polar opposites, so he would get both sides of the political parties and therefore make a better decision regarding the country.
What cities have been the national capital of the United States?
The first was New York City, and then it moved to Philadelphia, and then to Washington DC
What were Alexander Hamilton's political beliefs?
-strong central government
-a national bank (Federal Reserves)
-industrial nation in the future
-be allies with the British because they're an industrial country
-have a loose interpretation of the Constitution
-wealthy run the government
What were Thomas Jefferson's political beliefs?
-strong state government
-allies with the French because they're a farming country
-strict interpretation of the Constitution
-have poor people run the government
What did Washington warn about in his Presidential farewell speech?
To not have alliances with other countries
How did Alexander Hamilton get the country out of debt?
The southern states had already gotten their debt payed off because they were richer than the Middle and Northern states. Hamilton used the taxes from all of the states to pay off the debt. To get the Southern states to agree to this, he promised them the capital would be moved south, which is why it is in Washington DC today (Maryland and Virginia)
What did the Pickney Treaty do?
We negotiated with the Spanish so they'd allow us to use the Mississippi River that ran down through New Orleans; set the northern border of Florida at the 31st parallel; US and Spain would restrain their natives from attacking the others; Spain got to control New Orleans
What did Citizen Genet do?
He came over from France to try and get people to help them fight the British. Washington stops this
What happens concerning the Louisiana Territory at the end of Washington's presidency?
Napoleon conquers Spain and gets the Louisiana Territory