in mitchells loops, 2 protons are moving ___. this is driven by ___.
against the gradient
driven by redux reactions
stoichimotery of mithcells loops?
2H+/e- or 4H+/2 e-.
On the inside surface, an iron-sulfur center of a dehydrogenase and Cyt bh donate 1 e- each to___
Q must also pick up ___ from the aqueous inside phase
after getiting electron from iron-sulfur center of a dehydrogenase and Cyt bh
after Q picks up 2 electrons and 2 ptorons it then must ___ to be oxidized
diffuse outside surface to be oxidize
after QH2 2 electorn complex diffuses to outside surface what happens?
1 electron is rtansferred to iron sulfur center and another to cyt b
once Q gets rid of its electrons..
loses both hydrogens to become fully oxidized
then diffuses back inside to begin next cycle
a hydrogen acceptor (i.e., H+ + e-) such as Q is reduced on the inside surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane by electron donors that can supply
electrons but not the required protons
protons are received from the matrix
once Q is reduced, the hydrogen donor can move to be
where does Q dump the protons?
in the intermembrane space
explain the rotatry wheel of atp synthease
A H+ enters a channel and hops on to c subunit
c subunit rorates until the proton is aligned with a second channel
3. c rotary wheel is anchored to γ, when c subunits rotate realtive to a, γ is forced to rotate relative to the catlaytic subunits
4. the drive is protons moving down gradient is coupled with need to break atp off, allowing atp to be broken off
The ___synthase is now recognized to be a tiny molecular motor.
what are the only known proton driven rotary motor
- bacterial flagella motor
- FoF1-ATP synthase
with Glycerol phosphate shuttle you only get ___ atp
2 atp/2 e
why do you only get 2 atp with Glycerol phosphate shuttle
Doesn’t involve membrane transport since the mitochondrial glycerol-phosphate dehydrogenase is on the outside surface of the inner membrane.
just goes to complexes 2 and 3
Malate/aspartate shuttle gives ____ atp
Malate/aspartate shuttle (~3 ATP/2 e-) present in___
liver and heart
Glycerol phosphate shuttle (~2 ATP/2 e-), present in
some muscle and nerve cells.
adp/atp trnsslocator is ___
bc you are eliminating one of the positive charges
One P - and one H+ move in trnaslocator results in
a net loss of one H+ from the concentration gradient i
but with no change in charge (electroneutral).
what are the roles of H gradient?