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Flashcards in Path of Male Repro Tract Deck (47)
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31

What are hCG and AFP staining and serum levels like in seminoma?

Seminoma does not stain for hCG and AFP.
Serum hCG may be slightly elevated.

32

Prognosis for seminoma?

Excellent, for stage I and II. (98% cure rate)

33

Appearance of embryonal carcinoma, grossly?

Variegated, poorly demarcated.
Foci of necrosis and hemorrhage.
Exta-testicular involvement common.

34

What does embryonal carcinoma look like histologically?

Large, anaplastic cells in sheets.
No well-formed glands.
Nuclei large, hypochromatic*, with prominent nucleolus.
Lots mitosis. Giant cells common.
(*the slide says hyperchromatic... but that's wrong)

35

Yolk sac tumor gross appearance / presentation?

Rapid testicular enlargement.
Non-encapsulated.
Yellow-white, hemorrhagic, gelatinous.

36

Histological buzz-words for yolk sac tumors?

Lace-like, Schiller-Duval Bodies
A mess of cells - lots of white, open spaces,
Intercellular eosinophillic globules

37

What do yolk sac tumors stain positive for? Is it in serum?

AFP, strongly
Yes, elevated AFP in serum too.

38

Choriocarcioma presentation?

Unfortuately, often doesn't get big enough in testis to notice before metastasizing.

39

Gross appearance of choriocarcinoma?

Hemorrhagic and necrotic, may be scarred.

40

Immunostain and serum signs of choriocarcinoma?

Very very high hCG, often > 100,000 mlU/ml

41

Which GC tumor has the worst prognosis?

Choriocarcinoma.

42

Histological features of choriocarcinoma?

Large anaplastic cells (pretty similar to embryonal carcinoma).
Main feature is prominent syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells.

43

Teratoma definition?

Tumor with cells from more than one germ cell layer.

44

Gross appearance of teratoma?

Well-circumscribed.
Nodular, firm, cystic.
Mature tissue often present (hair, bone)

45

Mature vs. immature teratoma histological appearance?

Mature has more organized tissue - glands, epithelium vs. sheets of spindle-shaped cells in immature.

46

What can make a teratoma get worse?

When epithelial structures differentiate more and become carcinomas /adenomas/ sarcomas.

47

Difference in aggressiveness in children vs. adults with teratomas?

In children, almost always benign.
In adults, malignant with high recurrence / metastases.