PathoPharm exam 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PathoPharm exam 1 Deck (32):
0

Investigational drug study phase 1

Healthy volunteers

1

Investigational drug study phase 2

Small number volunteers with disease

2

Investigational drug study phase 3

Large number volunteers with disease

3

Investigational drug study phase 4

Post marketing studies by drug company-voluntary

4

Pregnancy category A

No ill effects to fetus

5

Pregnancy category B

No risk to animal study

6

Pregnancy category C

Study in humans but not pregnant women. Shows harm in animals

7

Pregnancy category D

Risk to fetus. Risk of not taking meds is greater than taking it, can be used in life threatening

8

Pregnancy category X

Risk to fetus is definite. No benefit.

9

Tetratogenic effect

Results in structural effect in unborn fetus; crosses placental barrier

10

DEA Schedules and controlled substances: schedule 1 (CI)

High abuse potential (illegal, no prescription available)

11

DEA Schedules and controlled substances: schedule 2 (CII)

High abuse potential and severe dependence liability -30day supply with no refills- hand written only; ei: morphine, methadone, methamphetamine

12

DEA Schedules and controlled substances: schedule 3 (CIII)

Less abuse potential, low-moderate physical dependence, high psychological dependence -no more than 5 refills; ei: anabolic steroids, codeine, hydrocodone

13

DEA Schedules and controlled substances: schedule 4 (CIV)

Less physical abuse potential-accepted medical use-written or verbal prescription with max 5 refills; ie: diazepam/Valium, alprazolam/Xanax

14

DEA Schedules and controlled substances: schedule 5 (CV)

Limited abuse potential, small amount of narcotic used as antitussives or antidiarrheals- may not need prescription but must be recorded; ie: OTC cough meds with codeine or Tylenol 3

15

First pass effect

Drug absorbed in stomach an small intestine must pass through the liver before circulating systemically, liver can inactivate drug making less available to target organ

16

Enteral

Absorbed through oral or gastric mucosa, small intestine or rectum. Oral, sublingual (highly vascular, no first pass), NG tube

17

Parenteral

Fastest route for absorption. Subcutaneous, IM(absorbed faster in muscles with more blood vessels), intradermal, IV

18

Topical

(Skin, or membrane linings of the eyes, ears, nose, lungs) constant amount over long periods, unreliable systemic absorption

19

Fat soluble

Lower blood concentrations bc of large distribution (more drug diffuses through membranes)

20

Water soluble

Small volume distribution but high blood concentrations (need a protein or enzyme to pass through the GI tract)

21

Anonist

Bind to receptor- response is present

22

Partial agonist

Binds but diminished response

23

Antagonist

Binds but no response (prevents binding of agonist)

24

Competitive antagonist

Competes with agonist

25

Non-competitive antagonist

Combines with different parts of receptor to inactivate it

26

Acute

Life sustaining

27

Maintenance

Delays progression

28

Supplemental

Replaces

29

Palliative

Comfort

30

Supportive

Integrity of body functions

31

Prophylactic

Prevention