Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation for Concepts Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation for Concepts Deck (66):
0

When are nutrient needs the highest?

During lactation

1

When should a person begin to consider diet for the best pregnancy?

Preconceptions

2

What is insufficient folic acid related to?

Spina bifida

3

What can nutritional deficiencies in early pregnancy cause?

Problems with cellular division and permanent fetal damage

4

What can nutritional deficiencies later in pregnancy cause?

Problems with birthweight

5

What is the normal kcal/day for an average woman?

2100-2400 kcal/day

6

How much should a woman increase her kcals in the first trimester?

None

7

How much should a woman increase her kcals in the second and third trimesters?

300 kcal/day

8

What should 50% of the increased kcals come from?

Carbohydrates

9

What hormone alters carb metabolism?

HPL

10

How much should a woman increase her protein intake?

14 grams

11

What is a good source of protein?

Milk and meat

12

What do you need to increase along with your protein?

Water intake

13

How much folacin does a pregnant woman need?

400 mcg/day

14

What is a risk with vitamin deficiencies?

Neural tube defects

15

For a healthy placenta what do you need?

Folacin

16

What is a good source of vitamins?

Green veggies, liver, peanuts, and whole grains

17

What is excessive vitamin A intake associated with?

Fetal anomalies

18

What builds the skeleton for the fetus?

Minerals

19

What happens to the absorption rate of calcium?

It doubles

20

How much calcium and phosphorous does a pregnant woman need?

1200 mg/day a piece

21

How much iron does a nonpregnant and pregnant woman need?

Nonpregnant: 18 mg/day Pregnant: 30-60 mg/day

22

When do you begin to supplement iron?

12 weeks

23

What can an iron deficiency cause?

Fetal death, low birth weight, and prematurity

24

What does vitamin D do?

Absorbs calcium

25

Why do you take iron with food?

To reduce nausea

26

What mind of beverage do you take iron with to promote absorption?

An acidic one

27

What should you not take iron with?

Tea

28

What mineral promotes DNA and RNA synthesis?

Zinc

29

What helps with fetal teeth and skeletal development?

Fluoride

30

What is weight gain during pregnancy prescribed by?

BMI

31

What is a healthy BMI?

18.5-23.9

32

How much weight is gained from the infant?

7.5 lbs

33

How much weight is gained from the placenta?

1lb

34

How much weight is gained from blood?

4 lbs

35

How much weight is gained from the uterus?

2.5 lbs

36

How much weight is gained from the breasts?

3 lbs

37

How much weight is gained from amniotic fluid?

2 lbs

38

How much weight should be gained from mom's fat?

2-8 lbs

39

What is the total weight gain during a normal pregnancy?

22-28 lbs

40

Relationship of weight to height

BMI

41

Weight gain with BMI <19.8 (underweight)

28-40 lbs

42

Weight gain with BMI 19.8-26.0 (normal)

25-35 lbs

43

Weight gain with BMI 26.1-29.0 (overweight)

15-25 lbs

44

Weight gain with BMI >29.0 (obese)

<15 lbs

45

What is the weight gain in the first and second trimester from?

Mother's changes

46

What is the weight gain from in the third trimester?

Fetus

47

What is the classic pattern of weight gain?

First trimester 2-4 lbs and then slightly less than a pound a week for the rest of the pregnancy

48

Why does weight gain >2 lbs a week cause concern?

Fluid retention

49

How much weight should be gained by 20 weeks gestation?

10 lbs

50

What percent of childbearing women are overweight?

54.5%

51

Eating nonfood substances

Pica

52

What should a woman do if she gets a leg cramp?

Stand up and dorsiflex the foot

53

Why is pregnancy common in pregnancy?

Decreased GI peristalsis

54

How much caffeine can be consumed a day by a pregnant woman?

200 mg/day

55

How many ounces of milk does a mother make each day?

23

56

How many kcals are in an ounce of milk?

23

57

How many kcals a day are needed just to produce milk?

640

58

How many more kcals should a mom consume when lactating?

500 for the first 6 months

59

Growth supplement for baby

Folacin

60

How much weight should the mother lose after initial weight loss?

No more than 1 pound a week

61

If mother is nutritionally deprived what happens to the milk?

The quantity is diminished

62

How much liquid should the mother drink a day when breastfeeding?

2 quarts

63

What impairs milk production and may make baby sleepy and a poor feeder?

Alcohol

64

What does the mother drink that may cause irritability in the infant?

Caffeine

65

What can the mother do that reduces the volume of milk?

Smoking