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Flashcards in Genetics Deck (110)
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Used to describe a part of the DNA molecule that contains the information needed to code for the types of protein and enzymes

Genes

1

Study of heredity

Genetics

2

What are the four nitrogenous bases of DNA?

Adenine, cytosine, thymine, guanine

3

What does DNA do?

Directs protein synthesis

4

What are the two types of DNA?

Nuclear and mitochondrial

5

Accumulation of genes from gametes of two parents

Nuclear

6

Matrilineal inheritance-descent through the female line

Mitochondrial

7

Involved in the actual synthesis of cellular enzymes and proteins

RNA

8

Copies the meaningful strand of DNA and carries the message from nucleus to cytoplasm

mRNA

9

Copying the meaningful strand of RNA

Transcription

10

Selects the appropriate amino acids and carries them to ribosomal RNA

tRNA

11

Forms 60% of the ribosome and assembles the proteins

rRNA

12

Assembling the proteins

Translation

13

Inherited alteration of genetic material

Mutation

14

What do mutations result from?

Substitution, loss or addition, or rearrangement of base pairs

15

Where might mutations arise?

Somatic or germ cells

16

Intracellular structures where genetic information is organized, stored, and retrieved

Chromosomes

17

Examples of haploid cells

Ovum and sperm

18

Examples of diploid cells

Somatic cells

19

Formation of 2 daughter nuclei containing the identical complements of the number of chromosomes characteristic of the somatic cells

Mitosis

20

Replication of germ cells that occurs only in gamete producing cells of the ovaries and testes

Meiosis

21

What are the four phases of the cell cycle?

Interphase, prophase, anaphase, and telephase

22

Actual genetic information

Genotype

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How the genes are expressed

Phenotype

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Multiple genes contribute to the trait

Polygenic inheritance

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Multiple alleles affect outcome and includes environmental effects

Multifactorial

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Variants in a particular gene

Alleles

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If both alleles are identical

Homozygous

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If alleles are different

Heterozygous

29

One allele is more powerful than the other

Dominant