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Flashcards in Infections for Patho Deck (72):
0

Microorganisms are multiplying in or on a host

Infection or colonization

1

Microorganisms normally living in or on body

Microflora

2

What cause disease?

Pathogens

3

Pathogen capable of producing infection when host is weakened

Oppurtunistic pathogen

4

Small modified infectious host proteins

Prions

5

Manner of replication of prions

Not clearly known or understood

6

Where do bacteria like to grow?

Warm moist places

7

What stage is active replication without recognizable symptoms in host?

Incubation

8

Stage with initial appearance of symptoms most commonly malaise

Prodromal

9

When are you most highly infectious?

Prodromal stage

10

What stage is the maximum impact of infectious process with rapid proliferation and dissemination of pathogen

Acute

11

Stage where there is containment if the infection, elimination of pathogen, repair of danger tissue, and resolution of symptoms

Convalescent

12

What stage is total elimination of pathogen and no S/S of disease?

Resolution

13

When are you not infectious anymore?

Resolution stage

14

-itis

Inflammation

15

-emia

In the blood

16

Bacterial toxins in the blood

Sepsis or septicemia

17

Make an infection more likely to cause disease

Virulence factor

18

Exotoxins

Outside

19

Endotoxins

Inside

20

Help infective organism stick to body

Adhesion factor

21

Help keep immune system from killing infective agent

Evasive factor

22

After exposure to an infectious agent the body produces antibodies

Serology

23

Antibody that rises during the acute phase then falls

IgM

24

Antibody that remains elevated after the acute phase

IgG

25

What is the genetic material of viruses?

DNA or RNA but not both

26

What do viruses need to replicate and why?

Host cell because they have no metabolic capability

27

What happens when a host cell is "transformed"?

It carries the virus

28

What is a virus responsive to that makes it become active?

Stress or hormonal changes

29

What are the effects of viruses?

Protein synthesis stops, enzymes kills cells, host cells fuse, secondary bacterial infections

30

Where is HSV type 1 located?

Above the belt

31

Where is HSV type 2 located?

Below the belt

32

Inflammation of the dorsal root ganglia

Shingles

33

What are the 3 ways antivirals work?

Interfere with nucleic acid synthesis, do not allow binding of cells to virus, and stimulate the body's immune system

34

Used to treat HSV, HSV 2, and varicella zoster

Acyclovir

35

How is acyclovir most commonly administered?

Topical

36

Does acyclovir cure the illnesses?

No it decreases the length of them

37

What is a risk of giving acyclovir with AZT?

Neurotoxicity

38

Used for treatment of HIV

Zidovudine

39

How does zidovudine work?

Inhibits reverse transcriptase for replication

40

What is an important SE of zidovudine?

Bone marrow suppression

41

Drugs that reduce the duration of influenza A and B

Tamiflu and Relenza

42

When should you start Tamiflu and Relenza?

Within 2 days of first symptoms

43

When should you not give antivirals?

If patient has herpes zoster or is immunosuppressed

44

One celled organisms with no true nucleus

Bacteria

45

Released when the bacterial cell wall decomposes

Endotoxins

46

Released during cell growth

Exotoxins

47

Why are endotoxins pyrogenic?

Due to lysis of bacteria

48

Bacteria requires oxygen

Aerobic

49

Bacteria doesn't require oxygen

Anaerobic

50

Bacteria in blood

Septicemia

51

How is TB transmitted?

Droplet

52

What is the usual protocol for TB treatments?

Drug susceptibility tests, start 4-drug regimen, adjust after susceptibility test results

53

What is a must in TB treatments?

Patient compliance

54

How long is TB treatment?

6 months

55

What TB drug inhibits protein synthesis?

Rifampin

56

What TB drug inhibits cell wall synthesis?

Isoniazid

57

When giving isoniazid what is it important to monitor?

Liver

58

What is a SE of rifampin?

Bodily secretions turn red-orange/brown

59

When do you take TB meds?

With meals

60

Infection caused by fungus

Mycosis

61

Mycotic infection that affects lungs

Blastomycosis

62

What are examples of mycotic cutaneous infections?

Candidias, dermatophytes, and tinea

63

Med for systemic mycoses

Amphotericin B

64

What can amphotericin B do to potassium levels?

Decrease them

65

What drug do you use caution with when giving amphotericin B?

Digoxin

66

What is a bad side effect of amphotericin B?

Nephrotoxic

67

What other drug can you give besides amphotericin B and why would you?

Fluconazole because it has less SE

68

What can fluconazole increase?

Anticoagulant effects and phenytoin levels

69

How do fungi reproduce?

Division

70

What are the two classifications of fungi?

Yeasts and molds

71

Single celled or multi celled organisms

Parasites