Flashcards in Infections for Patho Deck (72):
Microorganisms are multiplying in or on a host
Infection or colonization
Microorganisms normally living in or on body
What cause disease?
Pathogen capable of producing infection when host is weakened
Small modified infectious host proteins
Manner of replication of prions
Not clearly known or understood
Where do bacteria like to grow?
Warm moist places
What stage is active replication without recognizable symptoms in host?
Stage with initial appearance of symptoms most commonly malaise
When are you most highly infectious?
What stage is the maximum impact of infectious process with rapid proliferation and dissemination of pathogen
Stage where there is containment if the infection, elimination of pathogen, repair of danger tissue, and resolution of symptoms
What stage is total elimination of pathogen and no S/S of disease?
When are you not infectious anymore?
In the blood
Bacterial toxins in the blood
Sepsis or septicemia
Make an infection more likely to cause disease
Help infective organism stick to body
Help keep immune system from killing infective agent
After exposure to an infectious agent the body produces antibodies
Antibody that rises during the acute phase then falls
Antibody that remains elevated after the acute phase
What is the genetic material of viruses?
DNA or RNA but not both
What do viruses need to replicate and why?
Host cell because they have no metabolic capability
What happens when a host cell is "transformed"?
It carries the virus
What is a virus responsive to that makes it become active?
Stress or hormonal changes
What are the effects of viruses?
Protein synthesis stops, enzymes kills cells, host cells fuse, secondary bacterial infections
Where is HSV type 1 located?
Above the belt
Where is HSV type 2 located?
Below the belt
Inflammation of the dorsal root ganglia
What are the 3 ways antivirals work?
Interfere with nucleic acid synthesis, do not allow binding of cells to virus, and stimulate the body's immune system
Used to treat HSV, HSV 2, and varicella zoster
How is acyclovir most commonly administered?
Does acyclovir cure the illnesses?
No it decreases the length of them
What is a risk of giving acyclovir with AZT?
Used for treatment of HIV
How does zidovudine work?
Inhibits reverse transcriptase for replication
What is an important SE of zidovudine?
Bone marrow suppression
Drugs that reduce the duration of influenza A and B
Tamiflu and Relenza
When should you start Tamiflu and Relenza?
Within 2 days of first symptoms
When should you not give antivirals?
If patient has herpes zoster or is immunosuppressed
One celled organisms with no true nucleus
Released when the bacterial cell wall decomposes
Released during cell growth
Why are endotoxins pyrogenic?
Due to lysis of bacteria
Bacteria requires oxygen
Bacteria doesn't require oxygen
Bacteria in blood
How is TB transmitted?
What is the usual protocol for TB treatments?
Drug susceptibility tests, start 4-drug regimen, adjust after susceptibility test results
What is a must in TB treatments?
How long is TB treatment?
What TB drug inhibits protein synthesis?
What TB drug inhibits cell wall synthesis?
When giving isoniazid what is it important to monitor?
What is a SE of rifampin?
Bodily secretions turn red-orange/brown
When do you take TB meds?
Infection caused by fungus
Mycotic infection that affects lungs
What are examples of mycotic cutaneous infections?
Candidias, dermatophytes, and tinea
Med for systemic mycoses
What can amphotericin B do to potassium levels?
What drug do you use caution with when giving amphotericin B?
What is a bad side effect of amphotericin B?
What other drug can you give besides amphotericin B and why would you?
Fluconazole because it has less SE
What can fluconazole increase?
Anticoagulant effects and phenytoin levels
How do fungi reproduce?
What are the two classifications of fungi?
Yeasts and molds