Pathophysiology of Congenital Heart Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathophysiology of Congenital Heart Disease Deck (26)
1

What is specific to congenital heart disease as opposed to broader heart disease?

You are born with it - resulting from incorrect embryological development

2

Name two syndromes resulting from chromosome abnormalities that are associated with congenital heart disease (CHD for the purpose of these flashcards).

Downs
Turners

3

What is a branchial arch?

Primitive arches giving rise to blood vessels post-natallly

4

What does the 4th arch give rise to?

Right: Right Subclavian Artery
Left: Arch of Aorta

5

What is the most common failure leading to CHD?

Septation

6

How is the fossa ovalis kept open?

Pressure from r. atrium is strong so blasts through premium and secundum

7

What does failure of septation lead to

VSD & ASD

8

Failure of development leads to...?

Obstruction - atresia, stanosis or coarctation (narrowing) (of aorta)
Hypoplasia

9

What is dextracardia?

Heart is on the wrong side

10

What does failure of or incorrect rotation lead to?

TGA & congenitally corrected transposition of great vessels; dextrocardia

11

What does 'failure of closure' refer to?

Ductus arteriosus

12

What can be the result of pulmonary flow being greater than systemic flow (Qp>Qs)? (shunt ratio)

Heart failure
Reactive pulmonary hypertension

13

What is the definition of cyanosis?

Greater than 5g of haemoglobin per decilitre of blood being deoxygenated

14

What is the definition of pulmonary hypertension?

>30mmHg systolic pressure (resulting from increased Qp)

15

What two things can keep the foetal circulation going during surgery?

Prostaglandins
Rashkind

16

What is polycythaemia?

Abnormally increased haemoglobin in the blood, most likely through overexertion of erythropoietin so increased RBC production and large hematocrit population

17

What is pulmonary hypertension and what is it caused by?

High flow through pulmonary bed caused by genetic influences

18

Where can differential cyanosis (pink top, blue bottom) be observed? Give more details about this 'complex'.

Eisenmenger's Complex
Left to right shunt reverses to become right to left shunt causing cyanosis
- murmur disappears

19

What is the difference between ostium secundum ASD and ostium premium ASD?

Where the hole is: in secundum it is generally in isolation; in primum it is generally in association with other defects or factors

20

Generally speaking, is there a murmur present in ASD?

No

21

Generally speaking, is there a murmur present in VSD?

Yes

22

What does aortic coarctation cause?

Systemic hypertension

23

In which gender is aortic coarctation more common?

Males

24

What is the treatment of aortic coarctation?

Balloon dilatation (or surgery)

25

What does the Tetralogy of Fallot cause?

Cyanotic Heart Disease

26

What does the Tetralogy of Fallot cause?

Cyanosis

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