patterns of food production and consumption Flashcards Preview

Geography - population and the environment > patterns of food production and consumption > Flashcards

Flashcards in patterns of food production and consumption Deck (59):
1

what is the healthy adult calorie intake?

2000-2500 per day

2

global food consumption around the world.

it is varied
north calorie intake is higher than south
areas such as america and canada = highest - obseity is high
places such as south africa = lowest - may be due to low income

3

as world population increases what is also increasing?

world agricultural production

4

what is the pattern of production?>

overall it seems to be that poorer countries are producing the products and then supplying them to HIC's

5

what is agricultural productivity?

ratio of agricultural outputs to agricultural inputs

6

what is agriculture?

science or practice of farming including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops

7

what is climate?

a regions long-term weather patterns

8

what is food security?

exists when all people at all times have access to sufficient safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy lifestyle

9

what is salinisation?

the build up of salts in soil

10

what is soil?

the upper layer of earth in which plants grow

11

what is topography?

the relief and drainage of the area

12

what is zonal soil?

a soil that has experienced maximum effect of the climate

13

what factors have allowed the increase in agricultural supply?

package of technologies reffered to as the green revolution
increased relliance on global trade

14

why has agricultural production and consumption increased more quickly in lics?

higher population growth rates
increasing wealth
a greater responsiveness of demand to income growth of poorer countries

15

what are the physical inputs to agricultrual systems?

temperature
precipitation
climate
relief
soil type

16

what are the human inputs to agricultural systems?

labour and capital
machinery
fertilisers
energy
market demand

17

what are the processes of agricultural systems?

harvesting
spraying
ploughing
weeding
milking
feeding

18

what are the positive outcomes of agricultural systems?

crops
animals
products

19

what are the negative outcomes of agricultural systems?

pests
pollution
waste products

20

what are the losses to farmers?

soil erosion
poorly stored crops
crop disease
hazards
animal disease

21

changes outside of farmers control?

climate changes
market
demand changes
price
floods etc
government policies

22

what are the types of farming?

arable
pastoral
mixed
intensive
extensive
commercial
substinence
sedentary
nomadic
GM
organic

23

what is arable farming?

farming of cereal and root crops

24

what is pastoral farming?

involves livestock rearing

25

what is mixed farming?

production of both arable crops and livestock

26

what is intensive farming?

involves high investment in labour

27

what are the pros of arable farming?

less demanding than livestock farming

28

what are the cons of arable farming?

require flatland that allows the use of machinery

29

what are the pros of pastoral farming?

land that may be unstable for crops can be utilised

30

what are the cons of pastoral farming?

spread of disease
animals can be kept in cruel ways

31

what are the pros of mixed farming?

reduce dependency of external inputs

32

what are the cons of mixed farming?

control and maintenence of farm are more difficult

33

what are the pros of intensive farming?

one of the fastest growing sectors of agricultural economy

34

what are the cons of intensive farming?

animal welfare and health concerns

35

What is agricultural productivity?

represents how efficiently the agricultural industry use the resources that are available to turn inputs into outputs

36

what is total factor productivity?

the ratio of agricultural outputs to inputs

37

what is an agribusiness?

involves large corporate organisation of farming

38

what are the 4 aspects of food security?

availability
access
utilisation
stability

39

what does there need to be for a country to be secure?

a constant supply of healthy food and it needs to be accessible to all

40

what is food availability?

refers to the supply of food through production, distrbution and exchange

41

what is GAFSP?

the global agriculture and food security programme

42

global pattern of food security?

HICS = low risk which means they get sufficient food
LICS = at risk as they do not have access to sufficient and safe food

43

explain why the majority of countries at risk of food security are in sub-saharan africa?

climate
lack of trade links between other countries
desertification - infertile soils means less crops can be grown

44

how can food security be improved?

-science and technology
-distributing
-healthy population of farms and farmers
-close the yield gap

45

science and technology...

developing technologies that can help farmers reach their potential in the amount of food they produce

46

distributing...

food needs to be more evenly distributed and less food wasted

47

what are the strategies to ensure food security?

increasing food production
improving post-harvest practices

48

strategy 1 - increasing food production (example)

Rwanda where GAFSP funding is contributing to the Rwandan governments land husbandry, water harvesting and hillside irrigation project - works to increase productivity of small farmers

49

is strategy one effective?

after 30 months the project has reached 92,000 people
yeilds increased
maize - 30%
beans - 167%
potatoes - 219%

50

strategy 2 - improving post-harvest practices

in 2013/14 the WFP carried out research trials in uganda and burkino faso

51

what was the green revolution?

a noticable increase in cereal grain production in developing countries due to new seeds and agricultural practices

52

what were the advantages of the green revolution?

it allows agricultural operations on a large scale
it has the potential to be able to grow any crop anywhere
it eliminates the need to fallow lands

53

what were the disadvantages of the green revolution?

it can cause pests and weeds to develop hazards
it employs mono-culturing

54

what is the gene revolution?

modern biotechnology could enable the production of genetically modified crops which could be tailored to meet the needs of regions which still face food shortages

55

what were the advantages of the gene revolution?

increased exports
less fertilisers and pesticides needed
some studies show yields increase significantly

56

what were the disadvantages of the gene revolution?

seeds only last one growing season
some weeds are developing herbicide resistance
does not always improve food security as many crops are grown for export

57

what are the controversies around GM crops?

Gm food and whether it should be labelled
effect of GM crops on health and environment
effect on pesticide resistance
role of crops in feeding world population

58

what are the challenges of post-harvest practices?

losses of harvested crops
food safety

59

what are the solutions of post-harvest practices?

pre harvest instructions
training in harvesting
training in drying and threshing
solarisation
improving on farm storage