Flashcards in patterns of food production and consumption Deck (59):
what is the healthy adult calorie intake?
2000-2500 per day
global food consumption around the world.
it is varied
north calorie intake is higher than south
areas such as america and canada = highest - obseity is high
places such as south africa = lowest - may be due to low income
as world population increases what is also increasing?
world agricultural production
what is the pattern of production?>
overall it seems to be that poorer countries are producing the products and then supplying them to HIC's
what is agricultural productivity?
ratio of agricultural outputs to agricultural inputs
what is agriculture?
science or practice of farming including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops
what is climate?
a regions long-term weather patterns
what is food security?
exists when all people at all times have access to sufficient safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy lifestyle
what is salinisation?
the build up of salts in soil
what is soil?
the upper layer of earth in which plants grow
what is topography?
the relief and drainage of the area
what is zonal soil?
a soil that has experienced maximum effect of the climate
what factors have allowed the increase in agricultural supply?
package of technologies reffered to as the green revolution
increased relliance on global trade
why has agricultural production and consumption increased more quickly in lics?
higher population growth rates
a greater responsiveness of demand to income growth of poorer countries
what are the physical inputs to agricultrual systems?
what are the human inputs to agricultural systems?
labour and capital
what are the processes of agricultural systems?
what are the positive outcomes of agricultural systems?
what are the negative outcomes of agricultural systems?
what are the losses to farmers?
poorly stored crops
changes outside of farmers control?
what are the types of farming?
what is arable farming?
farming of cereal and root crops
what is pastoral farming?
involves livestock rearing
what is mixed farming?
production of both arable crops and livestock
what is intensive farming?
involves high investment in labour
what are the pros of arable farming?
less demanding than livestock farming
what are the cons of arable farming?
require flatland that allows the use of machinery
what are the pros of pastoral farming?
land that may be unstable for crops can be utilised
what are the cons of pastoral farming?
spread of disease
animals can be kept in cruel ways
what are the pros of mixed farming?
reduce dependency of external inputs
what are the cons of mixed farming?
control and maintenence of farm are more difficult
what are the pros of intensive farming?
one of the fastest growing sectors of agricultural economy
what are the cons of intensive farming?
animal welfare and health concerns
What is agricultural productivity?
represents how efficiently the agricultural industry use the resources that are available to turn inputs into outputs
what is total factor productivity?
the ratio of agricultural outputs to inputs
what is an agribusiness?
involves large corporate organisation of farming
what are the 4 aspects of food security?
what does there need to be for a country to be secure?
a constant supply of healthy food and it needs to be accessible to all
what is food availability?
refers to the supply of food through production, distrbution and exchange
what is GAFSP?
the global agriculture and food security programme
global pattern of food security?
HICS = low risk which means they get sufficient food
LICS = at risk as they do not have access to sufficient and safe food
explain why the majority of countries at risk of food security are in sub-saharan africa?
lack of trade links between other countries
desertification - infertile soils means less crops can be grown
how can food security be improved?
-science and technology
-healthy population of farms and farmers
-close the yield gap
science and technology...
developing technologies that can help farmers reach their potential in the amount of food they produce
food needs to be more evenly distributed and less food wasted
what are the strategies to ensure food security?
increasing food production
improving post-harvest practices
strategy 1 - increasing food production (example)
Rwanda where GAFSP funding is contributing to the Rwandan governments land husbandry, water harvesting and hillside irrigation project - works to increase productivity of small farmers
is strategy one effective?
after 30 months the project has reached 92,000 people
maize - 30%
beans - 167%
potatoes - 219%
strategy 2 - improving post-harvest practices
in 2013/14 the WFP carried out research trials in uganda and burkino faso
what was the green revolution?
a noticable increase in cereal grain production in developing countries due to new seeds and agricultural practices
what were the advantages of the green revolution?
it allows agricultural operations on a large scale
it has the potential to be able to grow any crop anywhere
it eliminates the need to fallow lands
what were the disadvantages of the green revolution?
it can cause pests and weeds to develop hazards
it employs mono-culturing
what is the gene revolution?
modern biotechnology could enable the production of genetically modified crops which could be tailored to meet the needs of regions which still face food shortages
what were the advantages of the gene revolution?
less fertilisers and pesticides needed
some studies show yields increase significantly
what were the disadvantages of the gene revolution?
seeds only last one growing season
some weeds are developing herbicide resistance
does not always improve food security as many crops are grown for export
what are the controversies around GM crops?
Gm food and whether it should be labelled
effect of GM crops on health and environment
effect on pesticide resistance
role of crops in feeding world population
what are the challenges of post-harvest practices?
losses of harvested crops