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1

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
What are the pronouns?

Pronouns are words which replace nouns that are subject of a verb. They can also replace other pronouns, an adjective or a clause.

2

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Enumerate all subject pronouns.

je (j')
tu
il, elle, on
nous
vous
ils, elles

3

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Enumerate all direct object pronouns.

me (m')
te (t')
le, la (l')
nous
vous
les

4

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Enumerate all indirect object pronouns.

me (m')
te (t')
lui
nous
vous
leur

5

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Enumerate reflexive pronouns.

me (m')
te (t')
se (s')
nous
vous
se (s')

6

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Enumerate disjunctive pronouns

moi
toi
lui, elle, soi
nous
vous
eux, elles

7

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
When ''e'' in ''je'' is elided and ''je'' becomes '' j' ''?

Before a verb that starts with a vowel or mute ''h''.
f.e. j'aime, j'habite

8

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Which pronouns can be used for persons and things?

''il'' can replace a masculine thing or animal and can be used as a subject in impersonal expressions.
f.e. Tu cherches le chien? - Il est là.

''elle'' can replace a feminine thing or animal and can be used as a subject in impersonal expressions.
La porte est fermée? - Oui, elle est fermée

9

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Which pronoun is used in informal French instead of ''nous''?

On
f.e. On a gagné.

10

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Which pronoun expresses one, they, people?

On
f.e. Comment dit-on ''bed'' en francais?

11

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Did you do the dishes, honey?

As-tu fait la vaisselle, mon chou?

12

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
How are you, sir?

Comment allez-vous, Monsieur?

13

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Do you know where the train station is, ladies?

Savez-vous où est la gare, Mesdames?

14

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Where are you, my children?

Où êtes-vous, mes enfants?

15

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Are you parents busy? - Yes they are very busy.

Tes parents sont occupés? - Oui, ils sont très occupés.

16

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Are French trains on time? - Yes, they are on time.

Les trains français sont-ils à l'heure? - Oui, ils sont à l'heure.

17

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Do these women work? - Yes, they work hard.

Est-ce que ces femmes travaillent? - Oui, elles travaillent dur.

18

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Are truffles expensive? - Yes, they are very expensive.

Est-ce que les truffes sont chères? - Oui, elles sont très chères.

19

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
What are object pronouns and where are they placed?

Object pronouns are words which replace nouns that are the object of a verb. In French, all object pronouns are placed before the verb.

20

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
What are the two factors that determine which object pronoun is used to replace a noun obbject?

1. The presence (or absence) of a preposition between the verb and the noun.
2. Which kind of object (thing or a person) is to be replaced.

21

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
When are the object pronoun elided?

The object pronouns ''me'', ''te'', ''le'' and la are elided to '' m' '', '' t' '', and '' l' '' before a vowel or a mute ''h''.
No elision takes place
- before ''h aspiré'', f.e. Je la hais.
- if ''le'' or ''la'' precede a word beginning with a vowel which is not a verb.
f.e. Dis-le à ton père.

22

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
He helps me.

Il m'aide.

23

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I love you.

Je t'aime.

24

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
You honor him (her).

Tu l'honores.

25

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Do it after dinner.

Faites-le après le dîner.

26

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
When are the direct object pronouns used?

Direct object pronouns replace direct noun objects (which can be preceded by the definite article, a possessive or demonstrative adjective). A noun is direct object if it follows the verb without a preposition.
f.e. In the sentence ''J'aime ma mère.'' ''ma mère'' is a direct object because it is not preceded by ''à'', ''de'' or any other preposition.

27

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Which are the direct object pronouns used for persons only?

me, te, nous, vous

28

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Dou you hear me? - Yes, I hear you well.

Est-ce que tu m'entends? - Oui, je t'entends bien.

29

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Do you see us? - No, I don't see you.

Est-ce que tu nous vois? - Non, je ne vous vois pas.

30

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Which are the direct object pronouns used to replace nouns reffering to persons and things?

le, la, les
''Le'' replaces a masculine singular noun, ''la''replaces a feminine singular noun, ''les'' replaces a plural noun.

31

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Do you know the young man? - Yes, I know him.

Connaissez-vous le jeune homme? - Oui, je le connais.

32

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Do you understand Mary? - Yes, I understand her.

Comprends-tu Marie? - Oui, je la comprends.

33

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Do you know his address? - No, I don't know it.

Savez-vous son adresse? - Non, je ne la sais pas.

34

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Do you read the newspaper? - Yes, I do it.

Lisez-vous le journal? - Oui, je le lis.

35

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Is he buying this computer? - Yes, he is.

Achète-t-il cet ordinateur? - Oui, il l'achète.

36

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Are you meeting your friends? - Yes, I do.

Rencontrez-vous vos amis? - Oui, je les rencontre.

37

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Which are the verbs that use ''le'', ''la'', ''les'' for persons only?

aimer, adorer, détester
f.e. Aimez-vous les enfants? - Oui, je les aime.
If the object to be replaced after these verbs is a thing, French generally uses ''ça'' after the verb instead of a direct object pronoun.
f.e. Quand j'étais jeune, je n'aimais pas le sport. Je détestais ça.

38

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Do you like seafood? - I love it!

Tu aimes les fruits de mer? - J'adore ça!

39

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I am looking for the key. I am looking for it.

Je cherche ma clé. Je la cherche.

40

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
He listens to the radio. He listens to it.

Il écoute la radio. Il l'écoute.

41

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
They are looking at the photo. They look at it.

Ils regardent la photo. Ils la regardent.

42

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
You pay for ticket. You pay for it.

Tu paies le billet. Tu le paies.

43

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
You are waiting for the train. You are waiting for it.

Vous attendez le train. Vous l'attendez.

44

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
We ask for te bill. We ask for it.

Nous demandons l'addition. Nous la demandons.

45

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
What happens if two verbs have the same direct object pronoun in a sentence?

This pronoun must be repeated if the verb is in a simple tense.
f.e. Je la respecte et (je) l'admire.
If a verb is in a compound tense, the object pronoun does not have to be repeated. But the second object pronoun can only be omitted if the second auxiliary is deleted as well.
Je t'ai vu et reconnu.
or: Je t'ai vu et (je) t'ai reconnu.

46

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Where is the direct object pronoun placed?

1. In all simple tenses, the direct object pronoun is placed immediately before the verb.
f.e. Je t'écoute.
In the negative sentences, ''ne'' precedes the object pronoun.
f.e. Je ne te comprends pas.
2. In all compound tenses, the direct object pronoun is placed immediately before the auxiliary. The past participle agrees in gender and number with the preceding direct object pronoun.
f.e. Il les a presentés.
In a negative sentence, ''ne'' precedes the object pronoun, ''pas'' follows the auxiliary.
f.e. Je ne vous ai pas compris(e)
3. If a infinite is present, the direct obecjt pronoun is placed before the infinitive.
f.e. Nous passerons te prendre.
If the infinitive is negated, ''ne pas'' is placed before the object pronoun.
f.e. Je préfère ne pas le voir
BUT
If the infinitive follows a verb of perception (regarder, voir, écouter, entendre, sentir) or the verbs faire and laisser, the direct object pronoun is not placed before the infinitive, but before the conjugated verb or, in a compund tense, before the auxiliary.
f.e. Je la vois ariver. Je l'ai entendu dire.
4. In the negative imperative, the direct object pronouns are placed before the verb.
f.e. Ne nous dérangez pas.
5. In the positive imperative, the object pronoun follows the verb (attached to it by a hyphen), and ''me'' becomes ''moi''
f.e. Regardez-le
6. ''Nous'' and ''vous'' are both subject and object pronouns. If used as object pronouns, they are closer to the verb than the subject pronoun but do of course not determine the form of of the verb. The verb always agrees with the subject of the sentence.

47

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I thank you.

Je vous remercie.

48

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Do you see him often?

Le vois-tu souvent?

49

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
We will contact you.

On vous contactera.

50

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Did she see you?

Est-ce qu'elle vous a vu(e)(s)?

51

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Did he wait for us?

Nous a-t-il attendus?

52

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
He is not going to recognize her.

Il ne va pas la reconnaître.

53

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I don't want to know it.

Je ne veux pas le savoir.

54

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Can I help you? 9(in a store)

Je peux vous renseigner?

55

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
She will pick me up at the airport.

Elle viendra me chercher à l'aéroport.

56

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I'll let you go. (=I'm leaving)

Je vais vous laisser.

57

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I heard it.

Je l'ai entendu dire.

58

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
That makes me laugh.

Ça me fait rire.

59

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
We let you leave.

Nou vous laissons partir.

60

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I forgot to bring them.

J'ai oublié de les apporter.

61

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
She hesitates to say it.

Elle hésite à le dire.

62

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Don't listen to them!

Ne les écoutez pas!

63

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Don't make me laugh!

Ne me faites pas rire!

64

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Leave me alone!

Laissez-moi tranquille!

65

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Keep me posted!

Tenez-moi a courant!

66

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Wait for her!

Attendez-la!

67

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Help them!

Aidez-les!

68

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Look for him!

Cherchez-le!

69

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Here I am!

Me voilà!

70

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Here you are!

Te voilà!
Vous voilà!

71

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Here he (it) is!
Here she (it) is!

Le voilà!
La voilà!

72

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Here we are!

Nous voilà!

73

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Here they are!

Les voilà!

74

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
When is ''le'' used as a neutral pronoun?

1. Le can replace an adjective or a noun without an article which follows the verb ''être'', i.e., a noun that is treated like an adjective in the sentence.
f.e. Êtes-vous marié(e)? - Oui, je le suis.
Neutral pronoun ''le'' never changes even if the adjective or noun it replaces is feminine or plural.
2. Le can replace entire clause
- often having the English equivalent ''so'' or ''to''
f.e. Elle peut partir si elle le souhaite.
- often without an equivalent in English when used idiomatically (with the verbs savoir, dire, (se) demander, jurer, promettre and oublier)
f.e. Savez-vous qu'il a eu un accident? - Oui, je le sais.

75

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Are you rich? - No, but I would like to be.

Êtes-vous riche? - Non, mais je voudrais l'être.

76

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
She was a lawyer but she no longer is.

Elle étais avocate mais elle ne l'est plus.

77

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
We are friends and we will always be.

Nous sommes amis et nous le resterons toujours.

78

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
This will happen if God wants it.

Ça va arriver si Dieu le veut.

79

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Will the weather be nice tomorrow? - I hope so.

Va-t-il faire beau demain? - Je l'espère.

80

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Will it rain? - I am afraid so.

Il va pleuvoir? - Je le crains.

81

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Will they come? - I think so.

Est-ce qu'ils viendront? - Je le pense.

82

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Did he find a job? - I don't believe so.

A-t-il trouvé un emploi? - Je ne le crois pas.

83

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Where did she go? - Nobody knows.

Où est-elle allée? - Personne ne le sait.

84

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
He bought a house. - How do you know?

Il a acheté une maison. - Comment le sais-tu?

85

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Like you are saying.

Comme vous le dites.

86

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Will he be successful? - It's too early to say.

Réussira-t-il?- C'est trop tôt pour le dire.

87

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
This will not happen again, I swear.

Ça ne se reproduira plus, je le jure.

88

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
You promise to be there? - I promise.

Tu promets d'être là? - Je le promets.

89

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Where did you put the keys? - I forgot.

Où as-tu mis les clés? - J l'ai oublié.

90

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
When indirect pronouns are elided?

''Me'' becomes '' m' '', ''te'' becomes '' t' '' before a vowel or a mute ''h''.

91

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Which indirect pronouns differ from the direct pronouns?

Only forms ''lui'' and ''leur''

92

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
When the indirect object pronoun ''leur'' get ''s''?

Never. Don't confuse the object pronoun ''leur'' with the possessive adjective ''leur(s)''.

93

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
When are the indirect object pronouns used?

Indirect object pronouns are used to replace nouns reffering to persons only. Indirect object pronouns replace indirect noun objects. In Fench, a noun is an indirect object when it is preceded by the preposition ''à'' (or is contracted to forms ''au'' and ''aux'').
f.e. Elle écrit une lettre à sa mère. Elle lui écrit une lettre.

94

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
He gives a gift to teacher.

Il offre un cadeau au professeur.

95

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
He gives a gift to him.

Il lui offre un cadeau.

96

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
He lied to the children.

Il a menti aux enfants.

97

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
He talked to the children.

Il a parlé aux enfants.

98

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
He lied to them.

Il leur a menti.

99

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
The car belongs to him.

La voiture lui appartient.

100

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to ask someone

demander à quelqu'un

101

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to be missed by someone (emotionally)

manquer à quelqu'un

102

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to obey to somebody

obéir à quelqu'un

103

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to forgive sb

pardonner à quelqu'un

104

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to please sb

plaire à quelqu'un

105

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to answer someone

répondre à quelqu'un

106

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to look like someone

ressembler à quelqu'un

107

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to survive someone

survivre à quelqu'un

108

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to call someone (on the phone)

téléphoner à quelqu'un

109

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
He asks Mary. He asks her.

Il demande à Marie. Il lui demande.

110

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
They answer the man. They answer him.

Lis répondent à l'homme. Ils lui répondent.

111

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I obey my parents. I obey them.

J'obéis à mes parents. Je leur obéis.

112

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
We call the woman. We call her.

Nous téléphonons à la femme. Nous lui téléphonons.

113

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I look like my mother. I look like her.

Je ressemble à ma mère. Je lui ressemble.

114

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
His friends miss him. They miss him.

Il manque à ses amis. Il leur manque.

115

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
My brother likes the movie. He likes the movie.

Le film plaît à mon frère. Le film lui plaît.

116

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
What is the position of the indirect object pronouns in a sentence?

The same rules apply as for the direct object pronouns, i.e., in a simple tense and in the negative imperative, the indirect object pronouns are placed before the verb, in a compound tense before the auxiliary, an of the conjugatd before the infinitive if there is one (except with faire and if the pronoun is the object of the conjugated verb). In the positive imperative, these pronouns are placed after the verb (attached to it by a hyphen) and me becomes moi.

117

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Don't call him/her.

Ne lui téléphone pas!

118

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I called him/her.

Je lui ai téléphoné.

119

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I am going to call him/her.

Je vais lui téléphoner.

120

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I made him/her write a letter.

Je lui ai fait écrire une lettre.

121

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I promised them to come.

Je leur ai promis de venir.
(Leur is object of promettre, not venir)

122

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Call me!

Téléphone-moi!

123

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Trust me!

Faites-moi confiance!

124

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I have to, I need to, I must
you have to, you need to, you must
he/she has to, he/she needs to, he/she must
we have to, we need to, we must
they have to, they need, they must

il me faut
il te faut
il lui faut
il nous faut
il vous faut
il leur faut

125

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I need money.

Il me faut de l'argent.

126

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
We must save.

Il nous faut économiser.

127

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
When is the pronoun ''y'' used?

1. ''Y'' is used to replace things only. One cannot use ''y''to persons.
2. The pronoun ''y'' replaces à (à l', à la, au, aux)+name of a thing or things.
Répondez-vous à la letrre? - Oui, j'y reponds.
3. ''Y'' replaces any preposition (except ''de'') indicating a location or a destination (à, en, dans, sur, sous, devant, etc.). In this role, ''y'' is an adverb and means there.
Habitez-vous en Espagne? - Non, je n'y habite pas.
4. The pronoun ''y'' replaces ''à'' + subordinate clause or infinitive phrase if the verb or expression preceding this clause or infinitive construction requires ''à'' also before a noun object, or cannot take a noun object at all (such as ''arriver à'' and ''parvenir à'' - to succeed).
Penses-tu à ce que tu as appris? - Oui, j'y pense.
5. With the future or conditional forms of the verb ''aller'', ''y'' is omited since two sounds would clash.
Irez-vous à Londres la semaine prochaine? - Oui, j'irai.

128

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Is there an agreement between pronoun ''y'' and past participle?

Since ''y'' is an indirect object, no agreement with a past participles occurs.
f.e. La lettre que tu m'as écrite? J'y ai déjà répondu.

129

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Do you obey the laws? - Yes, I obey them.

Obéissez-vous aux lois? - Oui, j'y obéis.

130

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Are you sitting in the first row? - No, I'm not sitting there.

Êtes-vous assis(e) au premier rang. - Non, je n'y suis pas assis(e).

131

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I am trying to concentrate but I am unable to do it.

J'essaie de me concentrer mais je n'y arrive (parviens) pas.

132

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
What is the position of the pronoun ''y'' in a sentence?

1. ''Y'' follows the same rules as the direct and indirect object pronouns, i.e., in simple tenses and in the negative imperative, ''y'' precedes the verb; in compound tenses, ''y'' precedes the auxiliary; and if an infinitive is present, ''y'' precedes the infinitive.
In the positive imperative, y follows the verb to which it is attached by a hyphen.
Mangez-y! - Eat there!

133

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I go there.

J'y vais.

134

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Don't go there!

N'y vas pas!

135

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I went there.

J'y suis allé.

136

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I would like to go there.

Je voudrais y aller.

137

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
What is the phonetic rule in the imperative sentences which contain the pronoun ''y'' and a -er ending verb?

If ''y'' follows the familiar form of the affirmative imperative, all -er ending verbs keep the ''s'' for phonetic reasons.
f.e. Reste! and Restes-y!
Pense! and Penses-y!

138

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to expect

s'attendre à

139

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to attend

assister à

140

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to believe in

croire à

141

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to pay attention to, watch

faire attention à

142

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to get used to

s'habituer à

143

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to be interested in

s'intéresser à

144

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to play (a sport or game)

jouer à

145

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to obey

obéir à

146

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to be opposed to

s'opposer à

147

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to participate in

participer à

148

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to think of / about

penser à

149

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to think about, ponder over

réfléchir à

150

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to give up

renoncer à

151

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to answer

répondre à

152

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to succeed, pass (an exam)

réussir à

153

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to insist, attach great importance to, value highly

tenir à

154

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Is there somebody? Someone home?

Il y a quelqu'un?

155

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
there is, there are, ago

il y a

156

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
What's the matter?

Qu'est-ce qu'il y a?

157

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
including

y compris

158

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
a long time ago

ill y a longtemps

159

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
He lost everything, including his wife.

Il a tout perdu, y compris sa femme.

160

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Go ahead!

Vas-y! (Allez-y!)

161

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Let's go!

Allons-y!

162

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Shall we go? Let's go! Let's get started!

On y va?

163

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to make it ( = succeed in sth)

y arriver

164

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I made it!

J'y suis arrivé!

165

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
We are going to make it!

On va y arriver!

166

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I tried to reach him, but I wasn't able to.

J'ai essayé de le joindre mais je n'y suis pas arrivé.

167

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to follow sb (in the mind)

y être

168

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Do you get it?(=understand it?) Are you ready?

Vous y êtes?

169

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Now I get it! Now I understand!

Maintenant j'y suis!

170

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to be responsible for sth., be to blame, have sth to do with.

y être pour quelque chose

171

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
If she cries, you certainly have something to do with it.

Si elle pleure, tu y es bien pour quelque chose.

172

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
not to be at fault, not to be responsible for

n'y être pour rien

173

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I am not to blame. I had no part in it.

Je n'y suis pour rien.

174

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
...is at stake

Il y va de...

175

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Your future is at stake.

Il y va de votre avenir.

176

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to know much (about sth), to be an expert (in sth)

s'y connaître (en qch)

177

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
He is an expert. He knows all about it.

Il s'y connaît.

178

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
She knows a lot about music.

Elle s'y connaît en musique.

179

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I don't know anything about cars.

Je ne m'y connais pas en voitures.

180

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I am confused. It's beyond me. It baffles me.

Je n'y comprends rien.

181

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I cannot believe it.

Je n'arrive pas à y croire.

182

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to get used to it

s'y faire

183

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
One gets used to it.

On s'y fait.

184

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to get down to business, to begin (doing sth)

s'y mettre

185

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I'll start tomorrow.

Je vais m'y mettre demain.

186

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to go about (doing sth)

s'y prendre

187

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
You have to go about doing early.

Il faut s'y prendre tôt.

188

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
You handle it badly.

Vous vous y prenez mal.

189

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I don't know how to handle it.

Je ne sais pas m'y prendre.

190

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
That's it! All right! It's done! It's happened!

Ça y est!

191

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
While I am at it.

Pendant que j'y suis.

192

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Before I forget. While I think of it.

Pendant que j'y pense.

193

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
My (your, his,...) heart isn't in it.

Le coeur n'y est pas.

194

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
If you insist. If it is important to you. - I insist!

Si vous y tenez. - J'y tiens!

195

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
It's no use. Nothing helps.

Rien n'y fait.

196

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Say hello to your husband from me. - I certainly will.

Dites bonjour à votre mari de ma part. - Je n'y manquerai.

197

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I've got to go.

Il faut que j'y aille.

198

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
When the cat's away, the mice will play.

Quand le chat n'y est pas, les souris dansent.

199

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Money doesn't buy happiness but it helps.

L'argent ne fait pas le bonheur mais il y contribue.

200

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
As long as there is life, there is hope.

Tant qu'il y a de la vie, il y a de l'espoir.

201

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
When is the pronoun ''en'' used?

1. The pronoun ''en'' replaces noun objects (things) introduced by ''de''. It is therefore used with nouns preceded by the partitive and plural indefinite articles (du, de la, de l', des) as well as with verbs, idioms and expressions (consisting of être+adjective) that require ''de'' before a noun object.
- when used to replace a noun preceded by the partitive or plural indefinite article, ''en'' means ''some'' or ''any''
Avez-vous acheté des fraises?
Oui, j'en ai acheté. Vous en voulez? - Non, je n'en veux pas.
-when used to replace a noun after verbs and expressions requiring ''de'' before their complement, ''en'' means it, of it, about it, for it, of them, about them or for them.
Jouez-vous de piano? - Oui, j'en joue.
-when used to replace ''de''+name of the place, ''en'' is an adverb and means from there.
Venez-vous de France?-Oui, j'en viens.
2. The pronoun ''en'' replaces infinitives introduced by ''de'', but only if the verb or expression preceding ''de'' would take ''de'' before a noun object also, or if this expression cannot take a noun object.
Avez-vous envie de sortir? - Non, je n'en ai pas envie.
3. The pronoun ''en'' can also replace a clause. This clause is not always introduced by ''de'' (often by ''que'' instead), but the verb or expression used after ''en'' would take ''de'' before a noun object.
Tu te souviens de ce que je t'ai dit? - NOui, je m'en souviens
4. The pronoun ''en'' must be used before the verb in sentences which contain a number or an expression of quantity (such as beaucoup, trop, plusieurs, combien, un kilo, un litre, etc.) which is not followed by a noun. In this context, ''en'' has the meaning of them, of it which is not expressed in English.
Est-ce que c'est une bonne affaire? - C'en est une.
- in a negative sentence, ''en'' is used, but ''un(e)'' disappears; all others numbers are kept
As-tu un caméscope?
Oui, j'en ai un. / Non, je n'en ai pas.
5. ''En'' is mostly used for things. It can however replace nouns referring to persons in the following instances.
- when the persons are introduced by the plural partitive or indefinite article ''des''
Avez-vous des enfants? - Oui, j'en ai.
- with expressions of quantity or with a number
Connaissez-vous beaucoup de professeurs? - Oui, j'en connais beaucoup.
In all other cases however, ''en'' cannot be used to replace a person after ''de''.

202

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to discuss

discuter de

203

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to doubt

douter de

204

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to suspect

se douter de

205

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to hear about

entendre parler de

206

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to apologize

s'excuser de

207

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to congratulate on

féliciter de

208

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to worry about

s'inquiéter de

209

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to play (a musical instrument)

jouer de

210

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to take care of

s'occuper de

211

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to talk about

parler de

212

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to do without

se passer de

213

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to think about (+yo have an opinion of)

penser de

214

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to complain about

se plaindre de

215

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to take advantage of, make the most of, take the opportunity (to)

profiter de

216

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to be crazy about

raffoler de

217

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to be happy about

se réjouir

218

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to thank for

remercier de

219

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to dream about

rêver de

220

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to realize

se rendre compte de

221

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to use

se servir de

222

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to remember

se souvenir de

223

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to look like

avoir l'air de

224

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to need

avoir besoin de

225

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to feel like

avoir envie de

226

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to have the habit of, be used to

avoir l'habitude de

227

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to be afraid of

avoir peur de

228

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to intend to

avoir l'intention de

229

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to be aware of

être conscient de

230

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to be pleased about

être content de

231

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to be sorry about

être désolé de

232

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to be proud of

être fier de

233

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to be happy about

être heureux de

234

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to be sure / convinced of

être sûr / convaincu de

235

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to be delighted with

être ravi de

236

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to be thankful for

être reconnaissant de

237

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to be responsible for

être responsable de

238

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to be sad about

être triste de

239

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Do you need money? - Yes, I need it.

As tu besoin d'argent? - Oui, j'en ai besoin.

240

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Is he responsible for this accident? No, he is not responsible for it.

Est-il responsable de cet accident?
Non, il n'en est pas responsable.

241

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Are you proud of your grades?
Yes, I am very proud of them.

Es-tu fier de tes notes? - Oui, j'en suis très fier.

242

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Do you dream of travelling? - Yes, I dream of it.

Rêves-tu de voyager? - Oui, j'en rêve.

243

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Did he promise to come? - Yes, he promised it.

A-t-il promis de venir?
Oui, il l'a promis,
(Here, ''en'' cannot be used because promettre does not take ''de'' before a noun object)

244

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Do you believe he is telling the truth? - I am sure / convinced (of it).

Est-ce que tu croi qu'il dit la vérité? - Oui, j'en suis sûr / convaincu.

245

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I am happy that you are telling me this. I am really happy about it.

Je suis heureux que vous me disiez ça. J'en suis vraiment heureux.

246

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
How many cars do you have?-I have (got) two.

Combien de voitures avez-vous? - J'en ai deux.

247

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
She is thirty and her husband is forty.

Elle a trente ans et son mari en a quarante.

248

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Did you receive a gift? - I received several (of them)

As-tu reçu un cadeau? - J'en ai reçu plusieurs.

249

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Will you buy any eggs? - Yes, I will buy a dozen.

Achéteras-tu des oeufs? - Oui, j'en achèterai une douzaine.

250

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Did you drink a lot of wine? - I drank too much (of it).

Avez-vous bu beaucoup de vin? - J'en ai bu trop!

251

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
How many do you want? - I am going to take three.

Combien en voulez-vous? - Je vais en prendre trois.

252

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Did you eat two cookies?
Yes, I ate two.
No, I didn't eat two.

As-tu mangé deux biscuits?
Oui, j'ai mangé deux.
Non, je n'en ai pas mangé deux.

253

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
How many people do you invite? - I invite ten.

Combien de personnes invites-tu? - J'en invite dix.

254

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
What is the position of the pronoun ''en'' in a sentence?

''En'' follows the same rules as the direct and indirect object pronouns, i.e., in simple tenses and in negative imperative, ''en'' precedes the verb, in compound tenses, ''en'' precedes the auxiliary, and if an infinitive is present, ''en'' precedes the infinitive (except with entendre, parler)

255

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I will talk about it.

J'en parlerai.

256

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I talked about it.

J'an ai parlé.

257

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Let's not talk about it any more.

N'en parlons plus!

258

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I am going to talk about it.

Je vais en parler.

259

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
What is the position of the pronoun ''en'' in the positive imperative?

''En'' follows the verb to wich it is attached by a hyphen.
If ''en'' follows the familiar form of the affirmative imperative, all -er and some -ir verbs keep the ''s'' for phonetic reasons.
f.e. Ouvre! vs Ouvres-en!

260

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I heard about it.

J'en ai entendu parler.

261

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Take some!

Prenez-en!

262

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Buy some!

Achetez-en!

263

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Make the most of it!

Profitez-en!

264

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Eat!

Mange!

265

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Eat some!

Manges-en

266

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to go away

s'en aller

267

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I am leaving.

Je m'en vais.

268

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
not to care

s'en ficher

269

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I couldn't care less.

Je m'en fiche.

270

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
not to worry

ne pas s'en faire

271

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Don't worry!

Ne vous en faites pas!

272

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
You mustn't worry, everything is going to be ok.

Il ne faut pas s'en faire, tout va s'arranger.

273

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to be fed up

en avoir assez (de)
en avoir marre / ras de bol / par-dessus le tête

274

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I am fed up. I've had enough!

J'en ai assez!

275

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I am fed up with this gossip.

J'en ai assez de ces ragots.

276

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I am fed up with this behavior.

J'en ai marre de ce comportement.

277

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to take ( a certain time)

en avoir pour (+time period)

278

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
It will take you two hours.

Vous en avez pour deux heures.

279

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
It will only take me one minute.

Je n'en ai que pour une minute.

280

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Will it take you a long time?

En avez-vous pour longtemps.

281

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to get one' money worth

en avoir pour son argent

282

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
not to be able to afford it

Je n'en ai pas les moyens.

283

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to be at a certain point (in a book) / at a certain stage of work

en être

284

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Where did we stop? How far did we get?

Où en sommes-nous?

285

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
We are on page one hundred.

Nous en sommes à la page cent.

286

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Where was I (in my work)?

Où en étais-je?

287

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to blame sb, pick on sb

s'en prendre à qqn

288

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
He blamed his brother.

Il s'en est pris à son frère.

289

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to be angry with sb

en vouloir à qqn

290

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I hope that you are not angry with me.

J'espère que vous ne m'en voulez pas.

291

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
He is angry with his father.

Il en veut à son père.

292

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to make it, pull through, get out of a (difficult) situation

s'en sortir

293

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
How is he going to pull through?

Comment va-t-il s'en sortir?

294

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Luckily, the hostages made it.

Heureusement, les otages s'en sont sortir.

295

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to be exhausted, not to be able to take it any more

n'en pouvoir plus

296

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I can't take it any more.

Je n'en peux plus.

297

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I can't believe my eyes (my ears)!

Je n'en crois pas mes yeux (mes oreilles).

298

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I can't get over it.

Je n'en reviens pas.

299

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
What are you getting at?

Où voulez-vous en venir?

300

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Be it as it may.

Quoi qu'il en soit.

301

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
here's one

en voilà un(e)

302

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
It's out of the question. No way!

Il n'en est pas question.

303

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Speak of the devil and he will appear.

Quand on parle du loup, on en voit la queue.

304

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Forewarned is forearmed.

Un homme averti en vaut deux.

305

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Two wrongs don't make a right.

Une faute n'en excuse pas une autre.

306

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Give him an inch and he'll take a mile.

Si on lui en donne long comme le doigt, il en prendra long comme le bras.

307

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
What is the sequence of double object pronouns in a sentence?

When two object pronouns occur in a sentence, they have the same position as single object pronouns, i.e., they precede the veratb in simple tenses and in the negative imperative, they precede the auxiliary in compound tenses and they precede the infinitive (if there is one), in the following order:

me (m') le (l') lui
te (t') la (l') leur
se (s') + les + + y + en
nous
vous

''me'', ''te'', ''se'', ''nous'', ''vous'' (no matter whether they are reflexive, direct or indirect objects) always come first, and ''y'' and ''en'' come last.

308

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
What is the sequence of double object pronouns in a sentence?

When two object pronouns occur in a sentence, they have the same position as single object pronouns, i.e., they precede the veratb in simple tenses and in the negative imperative, they precede the auxiliary in compound tenses and they precede the infinitive (if there is one), in the following order:

me (m') le (l') lui
te (t') la (l') leur
se (s') + les + + y + en
nous
vous

''me'', ''te'', ''se'', ''nous'', ''vous'' (no matter whether they are reflexive, direct or indirect objects) always come first, and ''y'' and ''en'' come last.

The direct object pronouns ''me'', ''te'', ''se'', ''nous'', ''vous'' cannot be combined with an indirect object pronoun. While one can say ''je vous la présente'', since ''vous'' is indirect object, one CANNOT say ''elle me leur présente'' since ''me'' is direct object in this sentence. Whenever ''me'', ''te'', ''se'', ''nous'' and ''vous'' are direct objects in a sentence, the indirect object is expressed by ''à + disjunctive pronoun''.

309

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Does he send the letter to his parents? - He doesn't send it to them.

Est-ce qu'il envoie la lettre à ses parents? - Il ne la leur envoie pas.

310

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
She drove you to the airport? - She is going to drive me there.

Elle t'a conduit à l'aéroport? - Elle va m'y conduire.

311

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I did receive your package and I thank you for it.

J'ai bien reçu votre colis et je vous en remercie.

312

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Is there still any coffee left? - Like I was telling you, there isn't any left.

Y a-t-il encore du café? - Comme je vous le disais, il n'y en a plus.

313

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
You are welcome.

Je vous en prie. (Je t'en prie.)

314

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I expected it.

Je m'y attendais.

315

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I suspected it.

Je m'en doutais.

316

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
What is your opinion about this?

Qu'es-ce que vous en dites?

317

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
A little bird told me.

Mon petit doigt me l'a dit.

318

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
You told me!

Vous me l'avez dit! (Tu me l'as dit.)

319

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
If your heart desires. If you feel like it.

Si le coeur vous en dit!

320

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I wonder!

Je me le demande!

321

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to buy sth for / from sb

acheter qqch à qqn

322

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to bring sth to sb

apporter qqch à qqn

323

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to teach sb sth

apprendre qqch à qqn

324

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to hide sth from sb

cacher qqch à qqn

325

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to owe sb sth

devoir qqch à qqn

326

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to ask sb (for) sth

demander qqch à qqn

327

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to tell sb sth

dire qqch à qqn

328

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to give sth to sb

donner qqch à qqn

329

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to write sth to sb

écrire qqch à qqn

330

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to borrow sth from sb

emprunter qqch à qqn

331

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to take sth away from sb

enlever qqch à qqn

332

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to teach sb sth

enseigner qqch à qqn

333

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to send sth to sb

envoyer qqch à qqn

334

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to explain sth to sb

expliquer qqch à qqn

335

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to show sth to sb

montrer qqch à qqn

336

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to offer sth to sb, to give sth to sb (as a gift)

offrir qqch à qqn

337

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to hand, pass sth to sb

passer qqch à qqn

338

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to take sth from sb

prendre qqch à qqn

339

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to lend sth to sb

prêter qqch à qqn

340

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to promise sth to sb

promettre qqch à qqn

341

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to tell sb sth

raconter qqch à qqn

342

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to remind sb of sth

rappeler qqch à qqn

343

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to hand sth in to sb

remettre qqch à qqn

344

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to give sth back to sb

rendre qqch à qqn

345

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to reproach sb for sth, to blame sb for sth

reprocher qqch à qqn

346

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to sell sth to sb

vendre qqch à qqn

347

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
to steal sth from sb

voler qqch à qqn

348

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
The saleslady gives back the change to the customer.
The saleslady gives it back to her.

La vendeuse rend la monnaie à la cliente.
La vendeuse la lui rend.

349

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
The students hand in their homework to the teacher.
The students hand it in to him/her.

Les étudiants remettent leurs devoirs au professeur.
Le étudiants les lui remettent.

350

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
They stole her cellphone from my aunt.
They stole it from her.

On a volé son téléphone portable à ma mère.
On le lui volé.

351

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
She is going to borrow the money from her friends.
She is going to borrow it from them.

Elle va emprunter l'argent à ses amis.
Elle va le leur emprunter.

352

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
What is the position of double object pronouns in the imperative?

In the affirmative imperative, double object pronouns follow the verb (attached to it and to one another by a hyphen) in the following order:

le moi (m' before ''en'')
la + toi (t' before ''en'') + y + en
les lui
nous
vous
leur

353

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
What is the position of double object pronouns in the imperative?

1. In the affirmative imperative, double object pronouns follow the verb (attached to it and to one another by a hyphen) in the following order:

le moi (m' before ''en'')
la + toi (t' before ''en'') + y + en
les lui
nous
vous
leur

Affirmative imperatives where ''y'' would follow a direct object prononun are avoided. One uses ''là'' or ''à cela'' instead.
f.e. Mets-toi là!

2. In the negative imperative, the order and place of double object pronouns is the same as in negative declarative sentence.
f.e. Ne m'en parlez pas!

354

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Bring me the menu!
Bring it to me!

Apportez-moi la carte!
Apportez-la-moi!

355

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Give me some money!
Give me some!

Donnez-moi de l'argent!
Donnez-m'en!

356

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Give them to them!
Take them there!

Donnez-les-leur!
Emmène-les-y!

357

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Let me talk to him! (on the phone)
Let me know (it)!

Passez-le-moi!
Faites-le-moi savoir!

358

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Remember it!

Souviens-t'en!
Souvenez-vous-en!

359

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Go away!

Va-t'en!
Allez-vous-en!

360

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Tell me! (Say it to me.)

Dis-le-lui!

361

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Tell him! (Say it to him!)

Dis-le-lui!

362

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Don't give it to him!

Ne le lui donne pas!

363

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Don't be angry with them!

Ne leur en voulez pas!

364

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
When is the the disjunctive pronoun ''soi'' used?

''Soi'' is used when the subject of the sentence is not a specific person but indefinite such as ''chacun'', ''on'', ''tout le monde'' or ''personne'', or when an impersonal expression precedes.
f.e. On pense souvent d'abord à soi.

365

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Where are the disjunctive pronouns placed?

Unlike the conjunctive pronouns (direct object pronouns, indirect object pronouns, reflexive pronouns and the pronouns ''y'' and ''en''), the disjunctive pronouns are not placed before the verb, except if they are part of a compound subject. They are often at the end of the sentence, frequently after a preposition.

366

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
One often thinks first of oneself.

On pense souvent d'abord à soi.

367

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
One must have confidence in oneself.

Il faut avoir confiance en soi.

368

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
When are the disjunctive pronouns used?

1. After prepositions
f.e. J'ai téléphoné à Marie. mais elle n'était chez elle.
After the preposition ''à'' with a limited number of verbs and expressions which do not allow the use of an indirect object.
f.e. penser à - Je pense à lui.
Note that after these verbs, the preposition ''à'' is kept and the disjunctive pronoun is used only when persons are replaced. to replace things, ''y''' is used, just like with all other verbs requiring ''à'' before their object.
f.e. Il pense à son travail. - Il y pense.
With most verbs requiring ''à'' before object a personal object, this object is replaced by the indirect object pronoun.
2. In answers, questions and exclamations where the pronoun stands alone, or when it is used without a verb.
f.e. Qui a dit ça? - Lui!
3. In compound subjects or objects, i.e., if the subject or object of a verb consists of two pronouns, or a noun and a pronoun.
f.e. Robert et moi allons nous marier en mai.
4. After ''ni...ni''
f.e. Ni lui ni elle ne sont venus.
5. For emphasis after ''ce'' and a form of the verb ''être'', often followed by ''qui'' or '''que''
Qui est-ce? - C'est moi.
6. To reinforce a subject or object pronoun (in this context, one places the disjunctive pronoun at the beginning or at the end of the sentence. If an indirect object pronoun is reinforced, ''à'' precedes the disjunctive pronoun.)
f.e. Moi, je suis contre.
7. After ''que'' in comparisons and after ''ne...que''
f.e. Il est plus âgé que moi.
8. After ''comme''
f.e. Faites comme moi.
9. After ''à'' following a possesive adjective + noun to clarify or emphasize who the tached towner of something is
f.e. sa voiture à lui
10. With the suffix ''même'', attached to it by a hyphen to express ''myself, yourself, etc.''
f.e. moi-même
11. The disjunctive pronouns ''moi'' and ''toi'' replace the pronouns ''me'' and ''te'' in the affirmative imperative (where they are placed after the verb) except before ''en''.
f.e. Apporte-moi le journal!
12. When a sentence has tw is expressedo objects, one direct and one indirect, and when ''me, te, se, nous, vous'' are direct objects in this sentence, the indirect object is expressed by ''à''' + disjunctive pronoun.

369

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Is there any mail for me?

Est-ce qu'il y a du courrier pour moi?

370

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
She trusts him.

Elle a confiance en lui.

371

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Do you need your parents? - Yes, I need them.

As-tu besoin de tes parents? - Oui, j'ai besoin d'eux.

372

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I agree with you.

Je suis d'accord avec toi.

373

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
We are going to manage without them.

Nous allons nous débrouiller sans elles.

374

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels
List the verbs and expressions which after the preposition ''à'' do not allow the use of an indirect object pronoun.

penser à - to think of / about
être à - to belong to
être habitué à - to be used to
avoir affaire à - to have to deal with
faire attention à - to pay attention to
tenir à - to value, to care about (a person)
s'adresser à - to address oneself to, speak to (to get help or information)
s'intéresser à - to be interested in
s'habituer à - to get used to
se joindre à - to join
se présenter à - to introduce oneself
s'en prendre à - to blame

375

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
The bag belongs to her.

Le sac est à elle.

376

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
We talked to them.

Nous nous sommes adressés à eux.

377

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Watch out for yourself.

Fais attention à toi!

378

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
He will have to deal with me!

Il aura affaire à toi!

379

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
She introduced herself to us!

Elle s'est presentée à nous.

380

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
This man is interested in you.

Cet homme s'intéresse à vous!

381

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
He writes to his brother. He writes to him.

Il écrit à son frère. Il lui écrit.

382

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Have a good day! - Thanks, you too!

Bonne journée! - Merci, à vous aussi!

383

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I am not hungry. - Me neither.

Je n'ai pas faim. - Moi, non plus.

384

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I am thirsty. Aren't you?

J'ai soif. Pas toi?

385

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I live in Paris, and you?

J'habite à Paris, et toi?

386

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
the two of us

nous deux

387

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
all of you

vous tous

388

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
He and you are good colleagues.

Lui, et toi, êtes de bons collègues.

389

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
We have been friends with them for a long time.

Nous et eux sommes amis depuis longtemps.

390

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I met her and Paul at the movies.

J'ai rencontré Paul et elle au cinéma.

391

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
We saw neither you nor them.

Nous n'avons vu ni vous ni eux.

392

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
It was her.

C'était elle.

393

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Thanks! - I thank you!

Merci! - C'est moi qui vous remercie!

394

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
They are the ones I am looking for, not you.

Ce sont eux que je cherche, pas vous.

395

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
We are the ones who are right.

C'est nous qui avons raison.

396

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I am not the one who is responsible.

Ce n'est pas moi qui suis responsable.

397

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Are you the one who did that?

C'est toi qui as fait ça?

398

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
When is used ''ce sont'' and ''c'est''?

''Ce sont'' is used with ''eux'' and ''elles'' and ''c'est'' is used with all other disjunctive pronouns, including ''nous''.

399

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Do you like that?

Tu aimes ça, toi?

400

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
You are lucky!

Vous as de la chance, vous!

401

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I don't know.

Je ne sais pas, moi.

402

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I know him well.

Lui, je le connais bien.

403

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
He loves me.

Il m'aime, moi.

404

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Are you asking me?

Tu me demandes à moi?

405

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I am less intelligent than you.

Je suis moins intelligent que toi.

406

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
She likes only him.

Elle n'aime que lui.

407

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Only I know. I am the only one who knows it.

Il n'y a que moi qui le sache.

408

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I left, like her.

Comme elle, je suis partie(e).

409

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
her car

sa voiture à elle

410

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
it's my money

c'est mon argent à moi

411

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
it's their garden

c'est leur jardin à eux

412

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
yourself

toi-même

413

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
himself

lui-même

414

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
herself

elle-même

415

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
oneself

soi-même

416

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
ourselves

nous-mêmes

417

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
yourself, yourselves

vous-même(s)

418

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
themselves

eux-mêmes
elles-mêmes

419

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Did you bake the cake yourself?

As-tu fait le gâteau toi-même?

420

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
When is ''soi-même'' used?

It is used just like ''soi'' when the subject is indefinite (on, chacun, tout le monde, personne, etc.), or when an impersonal expression (il faut, ile est nécessaire, il est impossible, etc.) precedes.

421

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Can one do it oneself?

Peut-on le faire soi-même?

422

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
One must do it oneself.

Il faut le faire soi-même.

423

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Can he do it himself?

Peut-il le faire lui-même?

424

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Bring me the newspaper!

Apporte-moi le journal!

425

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Sit down!

Assieds-toi!

426

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)`
Go away!

Va t'en!

427

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Which disjunctive pronoun can be added for emphasis in informal French?

moi
f.e. Reagrdez-moi ça! - Just look at this.

428

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I introduced myself to them.

Je me suis présenté à eux.

429

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I recommended you to them.

Je t'ai recommandé à elles.

430

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
She introduces herself to him.

Elle se présente à lui.

431

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Introduce us to her!

Présentez-nous à elle!

432

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
He introduced you to me.

Il vous a présenté à moi.

433

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
thank you!

merci à vous (toi)!

434

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
friends of mine

des amis à moi.

435

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
it's my (your, his, ...) turn (to), it's up to me (you, him...)(to)

c'est à moi (toi, lui, elle, etc.)

436

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
It's your turn to play.

C'est à toi de jouer.

437

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
It's up to him to decide.

C'est à lui à décider.

438

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Are you being helped? (in a store)

On s'occupe de vous?

439

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
It goes without saying.

Cela va de soi.

440

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
at (my, your, his, her, our, your, their) home / house

chez moi
chez toi
chez lui
chez elle
chez nous
chez eux
chez elle

441

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
I am going home.

Je vais chez moi.

442

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Will you be at home?

Est-que tu seras chez toi?

443

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
We are going to celebrate his birthday at his house.

On va fêter son anniversaire chez lui.

444

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
God helps thos who help themselves.

Dieu aide ceux qui s'aident eux-même.

445

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Heaven helps him who helps himself.

Aide-toi, le ciel t'aidera.

446

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
There is no place like home.

On n'est nulle part aussi bien que chez soi.

447

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Everyone for himself and God for (us) all.

Chacun pour soi et Dieu pour tous.

448

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Which pronoun replaces a noun object (persons ot things) without a preceding preposition?

The direct object:
le (it, him)
la (it, her)
les (them)

Écoutes-tu le professeur?
Oui, je l'écoute.

Faites-vous vos devoirs? - Non, je ne les fais pas.

Connaissez-vous ma fille? - Oui, je la connais.

449

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Which pronoun replaces a noun object (persons only) introduced by the preposition ''à''?

The indirect object.
lui (to her,to him)
leur (to them)
Except with verbs like penser à and être à, where ''à'' is conserved and the disjunctive pronoun used.

Réponds-tu au professeur? - Non, je ne lui réponds pas.
Obéissez-vous à vos parents? - Oui, je leur obéis.

450

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Which pronoun replaces a noun object (things only) introduced by the preposition ''à'' (o by any other preposition indicating a location or destination except ''de'')?

y (it, them, there)
Répondez-vous à la question?
Non, je n'y réponds pas.

Obéissez-vous aux lois?
Oui, j'y obeis.

Pensez-vous à vos vacances?
Non, je n'y pense pas.

Joues-tu au tennis? - J'y joue.

Allez-vous en France? - J'y vais!

Est-ce que la clé est dans le sac? - Oui, elle y est.

451

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Which pronoun replaces a noun object (things) introduced by the preposition ''de''?

en ((of) it, (of) them, some, any, from there)
As-tu besoin d'argent? - Oui, j'en ai besoin.
Êtes-vous d'Espagne? - Oui, j'en suis
Avez-vous peur de la mort? - Non, je n'en ai pas peur.
Joues-tu de la guitarre? - Non, je n'en joue pas.

452

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
When the preposition ''en'' can be used for persons?

When the noun to be replaced is preceded by the plural indefinite article ''des'', or when a number or an expression of quantity is used.

Avez-vous des enfants? - Oui, j'en ai. (Je n'en ai pas.)
Combien de frères avez-vous? - J'en ai trois.
Y a-t-il des adultes dans le groupe? - Il y en a beaucoup.

453

Personal Pronouns (les pronoms personnels)
Which pronoun replaces a noun object (persons) introduced by the preposition ''de'' (or by any other preposition except ''à'')?

A dijunctive pronoun (lui, elle, eux, elles)(him, her, them)

Avez-vous besoin de vos amis? - Oui, j'ai besoin d'eux.
Parlez-vous de votre professeur? - Oui, je parle de lui.
Avez-vous peur de votre mère? - Je n'ai pas peur d'elle.
Jouez-vous avec vos filles? - Je ne joue pas avec elles.