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Flashcards in pharm flash Deck (28)
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1

Pharmacodynamics

What the drug does to the body

2

Pharmacokinetics

What the body does to the drug

3

Adverse drug event

ADR + all other bad outcomes (prescribing, pharmacy, administration)

4

Adverse drug reaction

side effects in body

5

Drug phase 1

small number of healthy volunteers, assess safety/toxicity/ pharmacokinetics

6

Drug phase 2

Small number of people with disease, assess efficacy/ optimal dosing/ adverse effects

7

Drug phase 3

Large number of patients randomly assigned to treatment or placebo, compare new treatment to others

8

Drug phase 4

postmarketing surveillance, detect long-term adverse effects

9

Agonist

stimulates a receptor to produce signal

10

Antagonist

Blocks agonist from producing signla, has no effect by itself

11

Emax

efficacy, maximum effect produced by agonist

12

EC50

concentration of agonist that produces 50% of Emax. Potency

13

Theraputic index (TI)

LD50/ED50. Measure of clinical drug safety

14

Margin of safety

LD1/ED99

15

Kd

[agonist] at which 1/2 of receptors are occupied by A. Low Kd = tighter binding, higher affinity, slower dissociation

16

partial agonist

acts at same site as agonist, but with decreased maximum effect

17

competitive antagonist

shift curve right (decrease potency)

18

noncompetitive antagonist

shift curve down (decrease efficacy), cannot be overcome by increasing agonist conc.

19

irreversible antagonist

shift curve right (if spare receptors present), shift curve down (decrease efficacy) if no spare receptors available

20

Drug most common absorption pathway

Passive diffusion, rate determined by lipid solubility (depending on pH)

21

Volume of distribution (Vd)

Vd = D/Co . low protein binding= high Vd (as drug moves into tissue). For a given patient Vd=L/kg

22

First pass effect

presystematic clearance of oral dose of drug

23

ammonium cl- (NH4Cl)

used to lower urine pH, make it more acidic, enhance clearance of weak bases

24

sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3

used to raise urine pH, make it more basic, enhance clearance of weak acids

25

Elimination rate constant (K)

0.693/t^1/2 units=hr^-1. T^1/2 cannot be determined until absorption is complete

26

Clearance (Cl)

Vd*K units=L/hr

27

Steady state conc. (Css)

K/Cl units=mg/L. Or K=Css*Cl. It take 4t^1/2 to reach Css

28

Loading dose (Dl)

Css*Vd units=mg