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Flashcards in HMP shunt flash Deck (19)
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2

Alcohol DH

ADH. Ethanol--> Acetaldehyde + NADH

3

Aldehyde DH

ALDH. Acetaldehyde --> acetate + NADH

4

Acetaldehyde

Accumulation leads to symptoms of hangovers, treat alcoholics with ALDH inhibitor

5

HMP oxidative pathway

Generate NADPH

6

HMP non-oxidative pathway

Convert 5 carbons sugars to 6

7

Transketolase

Requires thiamine pyrophosphate. In HMP: X5P or R5P--> G3P or Se-7P

8

Transaldolase

Forms covalent bond by using amino group of Lys as nucleophile. Se-7P + G3P --> E4P+F6P

9

G6P DH

G6P-->6-Phosphogluconolactone + NADPH. Irreversible. High NADP+ activates

10

6 Phosphogluconoate DH

6-phosphogluconolactate --> Ribulose-5P + NADPH

11

Glutathione

Membrane bound in RBC. Structure: glu-cys-glu. GSH is reduced state, when oxidized it forms GS-SG (protects membrane lipids and proteins from oxidation). GS-SG is then reduced by NADPH

12

Glutathione reductase

Enzyme that reduces oxidized glutathione. Uses NADPH

13

Oxidase

Enzyme that transfers electrons to oxygen to make water or H2O2

14

Cytochrome P450

Mono-oxygenase enzyme (incorporate 1 atom of oxygen into substrate, other atom into water). First line of defense against many toxins, requires NADPH. Ethanol inhibits and other compounds (Ex. Tylenol) cannot be metabolized

15

Barbiturates

Sleeping pills metabolized by P450 system

16

Superoxide (O2-)

Made in mitochondria CoQ (eith e-) + O2 --> CoQ + O2- (occurs when O2 levels are high).

17

Superoxide dismutase

2 O2- + 2 H+ --> H2O2 + O2, mitochondrial enzyme. Main defense against superoxide

18

Catalase

2 H2O2-->2 H2O + O2 in peroxisomes, neutrophils, and mitochondria

19

Glutathione peroxidase

H2O2 + 2 GSH --> GSSG + 2 H2O. In mitochondria and RBC (cyto.)