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Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (46)
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1

Osteoporosis

Sym = bone loss, fractures. Associated with low term low intake of calcium/ vitamin D or decreased absorption of calcium. Contributing factors = age, gender, race, low BMI, estrogen/ testosterone deficicency, sedentary lifestyle, family history

2

Hypercalcemia

Toxicity. Abnormal hormone concentrations. Potentially due to high intake of calcium and vitamin D (likely from supplements), can interfere with iron and zinc absorption. Sym = excessive calcification of soft tissues. Hyperparathyroidism could lead to.

3

Iron deficiency

Most common nutrient def. Due to blood loss, diet, medical condition. Sym/sign = spoon shaped nails, Fe-def-anemia, decreased aerobic capacity. Treatment = supplements (ferrous sulfate/ ferrous gluconate), iron rich diet

4

Hemochromatosis

excessive iron absorption due to genetic disorder (decreased hepcidin). Sym = fatigue, increased infections, organ damage. Treat = chelating agents, avoid highly fortified foods, vit. C and iron supplements

5

Zinc def.

Sym: severe growth retardation, delayed sexual maturity, hypogonadism, impaired immune function, delayed healing, skin lesions

6

Vit. A def.

Sym: night blindness (nyctalopia), partial/ total blindness (xerophthalmia), changes in skin integrity (dry skin), corneal damage, urinary stones

7

Vit. A toxicity

bone pain/fragility, teratogenic (fetal abnormalities), dry skin

8

Scurvy

Vit. C def. Sym = fatigue, bleeding/ swollen gums, loose teeth, anemia, fractures, skin lesions, infections, impaired wound healing, depression, hysteria, easy brusing

9

Vit. C toxicity

nausea, cramps, diarrhea, renal oxalate stones, can increase risk of iron toxicity

10

Kwashiokor

def. in protein causes def. in protein synthesis, inhibits regeneration of intestinal epithelial cells, further compounded by malabsorption. Sym = Hepatomegaly, Distended abdomen. Often found in children of developing countries with adequate calories but insufficent protein.

11

Marasmus

diet def. in protein and calories. Persistant starvation leads t odeath

12

Beriberi

Thiamine def. Wet beriberi: high output heart failure. Dry beriberi: peripheral neuropathy

13

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

Thiamine def. Found in chronic alcoholics. Manifests as ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, confusion and confabulation

14

B2 (riboflavin) def.

Rare since frains and cereal products are fortified with riboflavin. Sym = Atrophy of tongue (glossitis), fissures of the corner of the mouth (cheilosis), dermatitis, and corneal ulceration

15

Pellagra

B3 (niacin) def. Sym: diarrhea, dementia, and dermatitis. Def. can result from isoniazid, Hartnup disease, or carcinoid syndrome

16

B6 def.

Most severe due to requirement for decarboxylating glutamic acid to inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Sym: seizures. Def. can be associated with isoniazid or penicillamine use

17

Biotin def.

Rare since biotin is made by GI bacteria, though associated with long term anti-biotic use and consumption of raw eggs (contain avidin, binds and inhibits biotin absorption)

18

B12 def.

Associated with lack of intrinsic factor (produced by stomach parietal cells). Def. blocks purine and thymidine biosyn. Sym = megaloblastic anemia, subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord, functional def. of folate

19

Folate def.

Impaired dTMP synthesis with DNA syn. Arrest. Sym = megaloblastic anemia. Pregnant pt. require to prevent neurotubule defects (Ex. Spina bifida)

20

Rickets

Vitamin D def. In children: defective bone minerlization with "squarred" head, bowing of legs. In adults: osteomalacia, weakening of bones, increased risk of fracture

21

Vit. E def.

Contribute to development of atherosclerosis and CVD

22

Vit. K def.

Def. seen in newborns due to underdeveloped GI flora, resulting in hemorrhage and bleeding diathesis. Blood thinner warfarin, used to treat blood clots, antagonizes the vitamins actions

23

Calcium

location: mainly bone and teeth. Function: bone/teeth structure, muscle contraction, nerve transmission, IC and EC enzyme cofactor, blood cloting. Vitamin D dependent. Parathyroid releases PTH to increase Ca2+ levels.

24

Iron

Function: hemoglobin/ myoglobin (transport O2), ferritin/ hemosiderin/ transferrin (store iron since it is reactive when unbound), cytochromes (energy metabolism), oxidant production (immune system), neurotransmitters, DNA synthesis. Hepcidin inhibits iron absorption (high inflammation = high hepcidin = low iron absorption). Stored mainly in liver/ bone marrow.

25

Zinc

Function: structural component, CNS signaling, stimulates bone formation, immunity, taste, vit. A activation, thyroid function, blood clotting, would healing, sperm production, fetal development. Absorption increased by protein, decreased by high calcium or Fe intake.

26

Water soluble

B complex and C

27

Fat soluble

A, D, E, K

28

B1

Thiamine. Cofactor for pyruvate and alpha-KG DH

29

B2

Riboflavin. Precursor to coenzyme flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)

30

B3

Niacin. Required for NAD+, NADP+, and DH