Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (46)
Sym = bone loss, fractures. Associated with low term low intake of calcium/ vitamin D or decreased absorption of calcium. Contributing factors = age, gender, race, low BMI, estrogen/ testosterone deficicency, sedentary lifestyle, family history
Toxicity. Abnormal hormone concentrations. Potentially due to high intake of calcium and vitamin D (likely from supplements), can interfere with iron and zinc absorption. Sym = excessive calcification of soft tissues. Hyperparathyroidism could lead to.
Most common nutrient def. Due to blood loss, diet, medical condition. Sym/sign = spoon shaped nails, Fe-def-anemia, decreased aerobic capacity. Treatment = supplements (ferrous sulfate/ ferrous gluconate), iron rich diet
excessive iron absorption due to genetic disorder (decreased hepcidin). Sym = fatigue, increased infections, organ damage. Treat = chelating agents, avoid highly fortified foods, vit. C and iron supplements
Sym: severe growth retardation, delayed sexual maturity, hypogonadism, impaired immune function, delayed healing, skin lesions
Vit. A def.
Sym: night blindness (nyctalopia), partial/ total blindness (xerophthalmia), changes in skin integrity (dry skin), corneal damage, urinary stones
Vit. A toxicity
bone pain/fragility, teratogenic (fetal abnormalities), dry skin
Vit. C def. Sym = fatigue, bleeding/ swollen gums, loose teeth, anemia, fractures, skin lesions, infections, impaired wound healing, depression, hysteria, easy brusing
Vit. C toxicity
nausea, cramps, diarrhea, renal oxalate stones, can increase risk of iron toxicity
def. in protein causes def. in protein synthesis, inhibits regeneration of intestinal epithelial cells, further compounded by malabsorption. Sym = Hepatomegaly, Distended abdomen. Often found in children of developing countries with adequate calories but insufficent protein.
diet def. in protein and calories. Persistant starvation leads t odeath
Thiamine def. Wet beriberi: high output heart failure. Dry beriberi: peripheral neuropathy
Thiamine def. Found in chronic alcoholics. Manifests as ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, confusion and confabulation
B2 (riboflavin) def.
Rare since frains and cereal products are fortified with riboflavin. Sym = Atrophy of tongue (glossitis), fissures of the corner of the mouth (cheilosis), dermatitis, and corneal ulceration
B3 (niacin) def. Sym: diarrhea, dementia, and dermatitis. Def. can result from isoniazid, Hartnup disease, or carcinoid syndrome
Most severe due to requirement for decarboxylating glutamic acid to inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Sym: seizures. Def. can be associated with isoniazid or penicillamine use
Rare since biotin is made by GI bacteria, though associated with long term anti-biotic use and consumption of raw eggs (contain avidin, binds and inhibits biotin absorption)
Associated with lack of intrinsic factor (produced by stomach parietal cells). Def. blocks purine and thymidine biosyn. Sym = megaloblastic anemia, subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord, functional def. of folate
Impaired dTMP synthesis with DNA syn. Arrest. Sym = megaloblastic anemia. Pregnant pt. require to prevent neurotubule defects (Ex. Spina bifida)
Vitamin D def. In children: defective bone minerlization with "squarred" head, bowing of legs. In adults: osteomalacia, weakening of bones, increased risk of fracture
Vit. E def.
Contribute to development of atherosclerosis and CVD
Vit. K def.
Def. seen in newborns due to underdeveloped GI flora, resulting in hemorrhage and bleeding diathesis. Blood thinner warfarin, used to treat blood clots, antagonizes the vitamins actions
location: mainly bone and teeth. Function: bone/teeth structure, muscle contraction, nerve transmission, IC and EC enzyme cofactor, blood cloting. Vitamin D dependent. Parathyroid releases PTH to increase Ca2+ levels.
Function: hemoglobin/ myoglobin (transport O2), ferritin/ hemosiderin/ transferrin (store iron since it is reactive when unbound), cytochromes (energy metabolism), oxidant production (immune system), neurotransmitters, DNA synthesis. Hepcidin inhibits iron absorption (high inflammation = high hepcidin = low iron absorption). Stored mainly in liver/ bone marrow.
Function: structural component, CNS signaling, stimulates bone formation, immunity, taste, vit. A activation, thyroid function, blood clotting, would healing, sperm production, fetal development. Absorption increased by protein, decreased by high calcium or Fe intake.
B complex and C
A, D, E, K
Thiamine. Cofactor for pyruvate and alpha-KG DH
Riboflavin. Precursor to coenzyme flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)