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Flashcards in immunology Deck (38)
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1

Innate immunity

Non, specific, constitutive, rapidly available, no memory. Ex. Macrophage, NK cells, neutrophils, dendritic cells, complement, skin, pH

2

Adaptive immunity

Acuqired immunity, memory, inducible, specific for Ag. Include humoral (B cells, Ab, Ig) and cellular (T cells)

3

Primary response

lag phase after introduction to Ag before primary response is given

4

Secondary response

Memory immune response, shorter lag, higher levels of Ab, longer persistance

5

Epitope/ Antigenic determinant

portion of Ag molecule that makes contact with the Ag binding site

6

Immunogenic

Ag capable of inducing immune response

7

Multiple myeloma

Tumor of plasma cells, usually found in bone marrow, high levels of monoclonal Ig, bence-jones protein (abnormal light chain dimer found in urine)

8

Hybridoma

Monoclonal Ab. Made from fusion of normal B cell (expressed Ig) and myeloma (no Ig, but immortile)

9

IgG and IgA

Both are divided into subclasses (gives total of 9 Heavy chain subtypes)

10

Heavy chains

Difference in C regions

11

Hypervariable regions

also known as complementarity determining region (CDRs). 3 regions on H and L chains

12

IgM

Pentameric with J chain. Gives primary response. RBC blood type. Complement (like IgG)

13

IgA

Dimeric with J chain and secretory component (helps stabilize dimer). Location: mucosal tissue

14

IgG

Most abundant. Corss placental barrier (maternal immunity). Gives secondary response. Opsonization and complement.

15

IgD

Low levels

16

IgE

Low levels. Allergies

17

Opsonization

IgG binds bacteria and allows phagocytic cells to bind viaa IgG Fc region to aid in phagocytosis. Mediated by C3b and IgG

18

Active immunization

Immunized individual gets immunity to specific Ag

19

Passive immunization

Transfer of pre-formed Ab allowing temporary protection (ex. Maternal immunity, anti-toxin)

20

Affinity

measure of interaction

21

Affinity

measure of strength of binding

22

Hapten

Small, non-immunogenic molecule

23

Carrier

large, immunogenic molecule

24

Ab Titer

dilution of antiserum containing specific Ab to determine levels of Ab

25

Isohemagglutins

naturally occuring Ab against AB blood groups. IgM

26

Coombs

Anti-human Ig

27

Direct Coombs test

Add coombs (anti-human Ig) to fetal serum, agglutination means fetus has Rh-Ab

28

Indirect Coombs test

Add Rh+ cells to mothers serum, agglution means mother has Rh-Ab

29

RhoGam

anti-Rh

30

Complement pathway

Alternative, Lectin, Classical. Involves cellular lysis, opsonization (C3b), release of anaphylatoxins (C5a, C3a), release of chemotactic factors (C5a)