Quiz 2 Hormone Releasing Glands Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 2 Hormone Releasing Glands Deck (33)
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1

Hypothalamus Hormones

Produces hormones (releasing factors) that stimulate the pituitary gland to produce other hormones

2

Anterior Pituitary Hormones

ACTH, LH, FSH, TSH, GH, Prolactin

3

ACTH

Stimulates cortisol production in adrenals (with negative feedback loop, to both pituitary and hypothalamus)
*diurnal variation, peaks in the morning and lowest in afternoon/evening

4

GH

Somatotropin, directs energy towards growth

5

Prolactin: stimulation of, inhibition

Stimulates breast growth and milk creation, turns off LH and FSH
Stimulated by TRH and inhibited by Dopamine
Hyperprolactinemia: shuts down gonads

6

Posterior Pituitary

ADH (vasopressin), Oxytocin
Made in Hypothalamus, stored in pituitary

7

ADH

Anti-diuretic, tries to hold on to water, stimulated by osmolality of your serum

8

SIADH

Syndrome of ADH, inappropriately high levels of ADH

9

Decreased ADH

Diabetes Insipidus

10

Oxytocin

Stimulates uterine contractions and letdown of milk

11

Glucose Suppression Test

Glucose in normal patients will suppress the release of growth hormone. Patients with tumors producing growth hormone will continue to release growth hormone after glucose infusion.

12

Adrenal Hormone Production

Central portion is where epinephrine and norepinephrine are made

13

Aldosterone

Mineralocorticoid, Controlled by Renin-Angiotensin system (promotes salt and water retention by kidneys, as well as control blood pressure)

14

Hyperaldosteronism

Conn's Syndrome (Primary): retain water and sodium
Secondary: Renin problem

15

Hypoaldostreronism

Addison's Syndrome: atrophy of adrenal gland
low sodium and increased K

16

Cortisol

Increases blood glucose, gluconeogenesis (from fatty acids), lipolysis, shuts down protein synthesis and switches to protein breakdown, turns off inflamm. response
Controlled by ACTH, negative feedback loop
Has diurnal variation like ACTH

17

Hypercortisolism

Cushing's (Primary): increased cortisol levels, lose diurnal variation, hyperglycemia, low ACTH, weight gain
Secondary: excessive ACTH production

18

(Nor)Epinephrine Metabolism

Epinephrine -> Metanephrine -> VMA (Vanillylmandelic acid)
Norepinephrine -> normetanephrine -> VMA
Metabolites excreted in urine

19

Pheochromocytoma

Benign tumor that secretes (Nor)epinephrine

20

Neuroblastoma

Malignant tumor producing (nor)epinephrine and dopamine in children
Dopamine becomes HVA (homovanillic acid) found in urine

21

FSH

Follicle Stimulating Hormone, increases estrogen levels and stimulates follicle growth
Feedback to Hypothalamus and Pituitary via negative feedback

22

LH

Produces progesterone and causes ovaries to ovulate
Feedback to Hypothalamus and Pituitary via negative feedback

23

Thyroid Hormones

T4 and T3, stored within follicles, cells around these follicles make calcitonin
Control metabolism

24

Thyroid Axis

Hypothalamus produces TRH to Pituitary which produces TSH
Thyroid hormones feedback negatively to Hypothalamus and Pituitary

25

Hashimotos' Disease

Ab to thyroid hormone: Thyroperoxidase (TPO), Anti-microsomal Ab (TMA), and Thyroglobulin Ab (TGAB)

26

Grave's Disease

Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI), attaches to same receptor as TSH and causes unregulated production of thyroid hormone

27

Hypothyroidism (3 Causes)

1. Primary: tissue destruction, removal (TSH up)
2. Secondary: pituitary damage
3. Tertiary: hypothylamic damage

28

Hyperthyroidism

T4 and T3 are increased, TSH is decreased
Grave's disease is most common cause of Hyperthyroidism
Secondary: Pituitary overproduction
Tertiary: Hypothalamic overproduction

29

Screening for Thyroid Disorders

TSH levels primary way
T3 and T4 levels (free levels)

30

Estrogen

Secreted by ovarian follicles and Placenta during pregnancy
Estradiol is the principal estrogen made
Purpose is to develop and maintain female reproductive system