Quiz 3: Lipids Disorders/Diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 3: Lipids Disorders/Diseases Deck (24)
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1

Type I hyperlipoproteinemia: elevated chylomicrons

Serum appearance: Creamy layer of chylomicrons over clear serum
Total cholesterol: normal - moderately elevated
Triglyceride: Extremely elevated

2

Type IIa hyperlipoproteinemia: Increased LDL

Serum appearance: Clear
Total cholesterol: Generally elevated
Triglyceride: Normal

3

Type IIb hyperlipoproteinemia: Increased LDL and VLDL

Serum appearance: Clear or slightly turbid
Total cholesterol: Elevated
Triglyceride: Elevated

4

Type III hyperlipoproteinemia: Increased IDL

Serum appearance: Creamy layer sometimes over a turbid layer
Total cholesterol: Elevated
Triglyceride: Elevated

5

Type IV hyperlipoproteinemia: Increased VLDL

Serum appearance: Turbid
Total cholesterol: Normal - slightly elevated
Triglyceride: Moderately - severely elevated

6

Type V hyperlipoproteinemia: Increased VLDL and chylomicrons

Characterized by increased VLDL and chylomicrons
Serum appearance: Turbid with creamy layer
Total cholesterol: Slightly - moderately elevated
Triglyceride: Severely elevated

7

Familial Combined Hyperlipidemia (FCHL)

Most common familial form, increased plasma levels of total cholesterol and LDL, or triglycerides, HDL may be decreased

8

Hyperapobetalipoproteinemia

VLDL and B-100 overproduction in Liver
LDL: normal - moderate elevation
Total cholesterol/triglyceride: normal - elevated
HDL: decreased

9

Familial hypertriglyceridemia

Characterized by moderate elevation of triglycerides and excessive VLDL production, cholesterol is also increased
HDL is decreased
Secondary Causes: Hormonal imbalance, Diabetes mellitus (increased fatty acid synthesis), Nephrosis
+ Can cause pancreatitis
Treatment- diet, drugs if needed

10

Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Characterized by increased LDL cholesterol due to deficient LDL receptor
Plasma triglyceride: normal - slightly increased
Plasma HDL cholesterol: slightly decreased
Treatment: Low fat low cholesterol diet, Physical activity, Statins or drugs if needed

11

Secondary lipoproteinemia

Conditions that cause abnormal metabolization of lipoproteins:
diabetes mellitus
hypothyroidism
obesity
pregnancy
nephrotic syndrome
pancreatitis
alcoholism
myxedema

12

Abetalipoproteinemia (hypolipoproteinemia)

Total cholesterol very low, triglycerides extremely low, no LDL

13

Hypobetalipoproteinemia (hypolipoproteinemia)

Low total cholesterol, normal - low triglyceride level
No increased risk of coronary heart disease

14

Hypoalphalipoproteinemia (hypolipoproteinemia)

Severely elevated triglyceride level, low HDL
Increased risk of coronary heart disease

15

Tangier Disease

No HDL, LDL low, total cholesterol low, triglyceride level low to slightly increased
Increased risk of coronary heart disease
Genetic deficiency of transporter protein (Cannot get cholesterol out of cells)

16

Arteriosclerosis

Disease of the arteries, thickening, hardening, loss of elasticity in artery walls

17

Atherosclerosis

Gr. sklerosis, hardness, indicates cholesterol-lipid-calcium deposits in artery walls.

18

Potential consequences of hyperlipidemias

Coronary artery disease (CAD): Angina, Myocardial Infarcts
Peripheral vascular disease (PVD): plaque in arteries in arms and legs
Coronary vascular disease (CVD): vessels in brain

19

Treatment options to lower the risk of coronary heart disease

Reduce hepatic cholesterol synthesis: statins (Reduces LDL)
Reduce cholesterol absorption from GI: ezetimibe
Reduce bile acid absorption from GI: resins
Decrease secretion of lipoproteins: niacin (Reduces LDL and increases HDL)
Increase peripheral clearance of lipoproteins: fibrates (Reduces Trig and VLDL and increases HDL)

20

Gaucher disease

Most common lipid storage disorder
Enzyme deficiency: glucocerebrosidase
Fatty material collects in spleen, liver, kidneys, lung, brain, and bone marrow
Treated with enzyme replacement therapy

21

Niemann-Pick disease

Fat and cholesterol in cells of liver, spleen, bone marrow, lungs and brain – no cure

22

Fabry disease - x-linked disease

Enzyme deficiency: alpha-galactosidase-A
Fatty build up in nervous system, eyes, kidneys, CVS
Treated with enzyme replacement therapy

23

Farber’s disease

Enzyme deficiency: ceramidase
Fatty build up in joints, tissues, and central nervous system. Corticosteroids to relieve pain.

24

Gangliosidoses

Abnormal storage of lipid in nerve cells
GM1. Enzyme deficiency- beta-galactosidase
GM2. Enzyme deficiency beta-hexosaminidase
Tay-Sachs disease- no treatment, Anticonvulsant therapy
Sandhoff disease