Quiz 2 Hormones Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 2 Hormones Deck (48)
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1

Types of Hormones

Steroid, Protein, and Amines

2

Steroid Hormones: synthesized by/from, transport

By: Adrenal glands, gonads, placenta
From: Cholesterol, lipid-soluble, made as needed rather than stored
Transport: Need a carrier protein to circulate

3

Clinically Significant Steroid Hormones

Cortisol, Aldosterone, testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone

4

Mechanism of Action: steroid hormones

Diffuse into cell and intercellular receptor, telling it to make new mRNAs
Controlled by negative feedback loop

5

Protein Hormones: synthesized by/from, transport

By: Anterior Pituitary, placenta, pancreas, parathyroid
From: Made and stored
Transport: do not need carrier protein, water-soluble

6

Clinically Significant Protein Hormones

Pituitary: FSH, LH (lutinizing), TSH, Growth Hormone, Prolactin
Placenta: HCG (Human chorionic gonadotropin)
Pancreas: Insulin, Glucagon
Parathyroid: PTH
*Those with acronyms all have the same Alpha chain but different Beta chains

7

Mechanism of Action: protein hormones

Attach to mem. receptor, stimulate cellular action
Feedback: change in hormone level or analyte

8

Amine Hormones: synthesized by/from, transport

By: Thyroid, adrenal
From: amino acids
Transport: Thyroids do, Adrenals do not

9

Clinically Significant Amine Hormones

Epinephrine, norepinephrine [Catecholamines]
Thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3)

10

Mechanism of Action: amine hormones

Adrenals: react with cell surface receptor
Thyroid: diffuse into cell
Feedback: activated by nervous system (adrenals)

11

TBG

Thyroxine binding globulin

12

CBG

Cortisol binding globulin

13

SHBG

Sex hormone binding globulin

14

Androgens

Hormones produced in adrenal cortex/gonads
androgens (testosterones), progesterone, estrogens

15

Hypothalamus/Pituitary/End Organ System

Hypothalamus makes releasing hormone that stimulates pituitary to release stimulating hormones that in turn cause an end organ to produce hormones or initiate a process

16

Primary Hyper/hypo conditions

End Organ problem

17

Secondary Hyper/hypo conditions

Pituitary problems

18

Tertiary Hyper/hypo conditions

Hypothalmic problem

19

Regulation of Hypothalamus/Pituitary/End Organ System

End organ product or process feeds back to Hypothalamus and Pituitary to stop hormone production

20

Thyroid Hormones

Stimulate metabolic processes for growth and development
T4 is converted to T3 in tissues, T4 concentration is higher
99.97% T4 is bound to TBG and TBPA, 0.03% is free
99.5% T3 is bound and 0.5% is free
Only the free portions are metabolically active

21

TBG and TBPA

Thyroxine Binding Globulin
Thyroxine Binding PreAlbumin

22

Primary Hyperthyroidism

Low TSH, High T4 and T3
Most commonly caused by Graves disease

23

Graves Disease

Autoimmune
Antibodies to TSH receptors push the thyroid to produce T3/T4 and suppress TSH
T3/T4 levels are normal or high, TSH is low

24

Primary Hypothyroidism

Low T3/T4 and high TSH
Causes: Congenital (cretinism), Myxedema (severe thyroid deficiency), Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

25

Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

Autoantibodies to Thyroid, low T3/T4 and high TSH

26

Thyroid Function Tests

TSH, Total thyroxine, Free T4, Direct T3

27

Hypothalamus/Pituitary/Thyroid System

Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH) -
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) -
Thyroid -
T3/T4

28

Hypothalamus/Pituitary/Adrenal Cortex System

Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH) -
Adrenocorticotropic Releasing Hormone (ATCH) -
Adrenal Cortex -
Cortisol, Aldosterone, Estrogens, Testosterone

29

Hypothalamus/Pituitary/Ovaries-Testes System

Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) -
Leutinizing Hormone (LH) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) -
Ovaries or Testes -
Ovulation or Spermatogenesis

30

Adrenal Cortex Hormones

Produces 3 kinds of Steroid hormones:
Mineralcorticoids (Aldosterone)
Glucocorticoids (Cortisol)
Sex hormones (Androgens/Estrogens)
Regulated by cortisol feedback to hypothalamus/pituitary