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Flashcards in Quiz 1: Intro Deck (22)
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Total Quality Management

1. Listing the protection offered in licensure & regulations
2. Stating the persons who may order tests
3. Listing the persons to whom laboratory test can be reported
4. Detailing the classes of laboratory personnel and their tasks


Most Common Specimen Types

• Blood: whole blood, serum, plasma
• Urine
• Cerebral Spinal Fluid
• Serous Fluids
• Feces
• Sweat
• Gastric fluid
• Amniotic fluid • Saliva
• Breath
• Hair
• Stones/calculi
• Biopsy
• Cord blood


Pre-analytical Factors

Sample collection, transportation, storage, or processing


Analytical Factors

Various grades of Chemical Reagents and Water Purity (standards: primary vs secondary, water types)
Quality control material
Proficiency tests


Common Chemistry Panel Tests

Chem panel 4: Electrolyte Panel (Sodium, Potassium, Chloride & Bicarbonate)
Chem panel 7: Electrolytes, Glucose, Blood Urea Nitrogen, and Creatinine (BUN/Cr)
Chem panel 12: a metabolic panel of many biochemicals
Liver panel: Liver enzymes, bilirubin, and Prothrombin (PT) GTT: glucose tolerance testing
Thyroid panels: thyroid hormone tests


Delta Checks

It’s the review of previous results, looking for a relative change of an analyte
May be responsible for a patient’s condition, or an indication of a laboratory error.


Chemical Reagent Grades

Primary- highly purified with a known concentration Secondary-less purified and compared to primary for concentration


Water Grades

Distilled Water- Purified via boiling to remove nearly all organic matter
Deionized water- Has most or all of the ions removed, but still may retain organic matter (neither pure nor sterile)
RO Water- Pushes water through a semipermeable men., used as a pretreatment
Reagent Grade- classified into one of 6 categories based on what it is going to be used for rather than purification type


Colorimetric Testing Principles

Uses a device to test the concentration of a solution by measuring its absorbance of a specific wavelength of light


Enzymatic Testing Principles

Measurement of a secondary product from the action of an enzyme on the analyte


Immunoassay Testing Principles

An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule in a solution through the use of an antibody or immunoglobulin. The macromolecule detected by the immunoassay is often referred to as an "analyte"


Nephelometry Testing Principles

A nephelometer is an instrument for measuring concentration of suspended particulates in a liquid or gas colloid. A nephelometer measures suspended particulates by employing a light beam (source beam) and a light detector set to one side (often 90°) of the source beam. Particle density is then a function of the light reflected into the detector from the particles.


Quality in Lab Tasks

Precision, Accuracy, Sensitivity, Specificity, Regulatory Compliance, Industry Standards


State Mandated Tests

Phenylketonuria (PKU), Galactosemia, Congenital hypothyroidism, Hemoglobinopathies


Sample Collection and Handling

Heparin is preferred to Oxalate, EDTA, Citrate
On ice when the sample is for ammonia or blood gases
Sodium Fluoride is used for Glucose (slows glycolysis), but not accepted for BUN because it inhibits urease


Atomic Absorption Spectrophtometry

Ground State atoms absorb light at defined wavelengths after a sample is atomized by being passed through a flame


Molecular Emission Spectroscopy

Measurement of fluorescence from samples whose excitation requires absorption of radiant energy
Fluorometry or Phosphorescence



Solutes are separated based on physical differences in a mobile (liquid or gas) and stationary (Silica gel or glass) phase


Mass Spectrometry

Separates ions by moving them through a magnetic or electric field that sorts them based on charge to mass ratio



Determines the concen. of a substance using and electrochemical cell (made of 2 half cells) that measures the potential difference between the indicator electrode and the reference electrode
Used for pH in blood gas analyzers



Measures the amount of current produced through oxidation/reduction of substance being measured at an electrode held at a fixed potential
Used for pO2 (partial pressure of oxygen) in blood gas analyzers



Uses a coulometric system based on Faraday's Law - the number of equivalent weights of a reactant oxidized/reduced is directly proportional to the quantity of electricity used in the reaction
Used to measure Chloride