Reproductive - Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Reproductive - Anatomy Deck (15):
1

Gonadal drainage

  • Venous drainage 
    • Left ovary/testis
    • Right ovary/testis
  • Lymphatic drainage
    • Ovaries/testes
    • Distal vagina/vulva/scrotum
    • Proximal vagina/uterus
  • Left vs. right flow

  • Venous drainage
    • Left ovary/testis Ž--> left gonadal vein Ž--> left renal vein -->Ž IVC.
    • Right ovary/testis -->Ž right gonadal vein Ž--> IVC.
    • Left gonadal vein takes the Longest way
  • Lymphatic drainage
    • Ovaries/testes Ž--> para-aortic lymph nodes.
    • Distal vagina/vulva/scrotum -->Ž superficial inguinal nodes.
    • Proximal vagina/uterus Ž--> obturator, external iliac and hypogastric nodes.
  • Left vs. right flow
    • Because the left spermatic vein enters the left renal vein at a 90° angle, flow is less continuous on the left than on the right. Ž
    • --> left venous pressure > right venous pressure 
    • -->Ž varicocele more common on the left.

2

Female reproductive anatomy (563)

3

Infundibulopelvic ligament (suspensory ligament of the ovaries) (563)

  • Connects...
  • Structures contained
  • Notes

  • Connects...
    • Ovaries to lateral pelvic wall
  • Structures contained
    • Ovarian vessels
  • Notes
    • Ligate vessels during oophorectomy to avoid bleeding.
    • Ureter courses retroperitoneally, close to gonadal vessels.
    • At risk of injury during ligation of ovarian vessels.

4

Cardinal ligament (not labeled) (563)

  • Connects...
  • Structures contained
  • Notes

  • Connects...
    • Cervix to side wall of pelvis
  • Structures contained
    • Uterine vessels
  • Notes
    • Ureter at risk of injury during ligation of uterine vessels in hysterectomy.

5

Round ligament of the uterus (563)

  • Connects...
  • Notes

  • Connects...
    • Uterine fundus to labia majora
  • Notes
    • Derivative of gubernaculum.
    • Travels through round inguinal canal
      • Above the artery of Sampson.

6

Broad ligament (563)

  • Connects...
  • Structures contained
  • Notes

  • Connects...
    • Uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries to pelvic side wall
  • Structures contained
    • Ovaries, fallopian tubes, and round ligaments of uterus
  • Notes
    • Mesosalpinx, mesometrium, and mesovarium are the components of the broad ligament.

7

Ovarian ligament (563)

  • Connects...
  • Notes

  • Connects...
    • Medial pole of ovary to lateral uterus
  • Notes
    • A derivative of the gubernaculum.
    • Ovarian Ligament Latches to Lateral uterus.

8

Female reproductive epithelial histology

  • Vagina
  • Ectocervix
  • Endocervix
  • Transformation zone

  • Vagina
    • Stratified squamous epithelium, nonkeratinized
  • Ectocervix
    • Stratified squamous epithelium, nonkeratinized
  • Endocervix
    • Simple columnar epithelium
  • Transformation zone
    • Squamocolumnar junction (most common area for cervical cancer)

9

Female reproductive epithelial histology

  • Uterus
  • Fallopian tube
  • Ovary, outer surface

  • Uterus
    • Simple columnar epithelium with long tubular glands
  • Fallopian tube
    • Simple columnar epithelium, many ciliated cells, a few secretory (peg) cells
  • Ovary, outer surface
    • Simple cuboidal epithelium (germinal epithelium covering surface of ovary)

10

Female sexual response cycle

  • Most commonly described as phase of excitement (uterus elevates, vaginal lubrication), plateau (expansion of inner vagina), orgasm (contraction of uterus), and resolution
  • Mediated by autonomic nervous system.
  • Also causes tachycardia and skin flushing.

11

Male reproductive anatomy:
Pathway of sperm during ejaculation (564)

  • SEVEN UP:
  • Seminiferous tubules
  • Epididymis
  • Vas deferens
  • Ejaculatory ducts
  • (Nothing)
  • Urethra
  • Penis

12

Autonomic innervation of the male sexual response

  • Erection
  • Emission
  • Ejaculation
  • Sildenafil and vardenafil

  • Erection
    • Parasympathetic nervous system (pelvic nerve):
      • ƒƒNO Ž--> increased cGMP Ž-->Ž smooth muscle relaxation ŽŽ--> vasodilation Ž-->Ž proerectile.
      • ƒƒNorepinephrine Ž-->Ž increased [Ca2+]in ŽŽ--> smooth muscle contraction Ž-->Ž vasoconstriction Ž-->Ž antierectile.
  • Emission
    • Sympathetic nervous system (hypogastric nerve).
  • Point and Shoot.
  • Ejaculation
    • Visceral and somatic nerves (pudendal nerve).
  • Sildenafil and vardenafil inhibit cGMP breakdown.

13

Spermatogonia (566)

  • Type of cells
  • Function(s)
  • Location

  • Type of cells
    • Germ cells
  • Function(s)
    • Maintain germ pool and produce 1° spermatocytes
  • Location
    • Line seminiferous tubules [A]

14

Sertoli cells

  • Type of cells
  • Function(s)
  • Location

  • Type of cells
    • Non–germ cells
  • Functions
    • Secrete inhibin Ž--> inhibit FSH
    • Secrete androgen-binding protein Ž--> maintain local levels of testosterone
      • Convert testosterone and androstenedione to estrogen via aromatase
    • Tight junctions between adjacent Sertoli cells form blood-testis barrier -->Ž isolate gametes from autoimmune attack
      • Sertoli cells Support Sperm Synthesis
    • Support and nourish developing spermatozoa
    • Regulate spermatogenesis
    • Produce MIF
    • Temperature sensitive
      • Decrease sperm production and decrease inhibin with increased temperature
      • Increased temperature seen in varicocele, cryptorchidism
  • Location
    • Line seminiferous tubules

15

Leydig cells

  • Type of cells
  • Functions
  • Location

  • Type of cells
    • Endocrine cells
  • Functions
    • Secrete testosterone in the presence of LH
      • Testosterone production unaffected by temperature
    • Also contain aromatase
  • Location
    • Interstitium of seminiferous tubules

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