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Flashcards in Review Test Deck (105):
1

Magna Carta

A foundational document that helped develop the US government

2

1492

Columbus found the New World for King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain

3

John Cabot in 1492

Sailed from Bristol to England to discover modern day Canada for Henry the 7 in England

4

Who turned England from a Catholic realm to Protestant realm during the English reformation?

King Henry the 8

5

Who was King Henry VIII wife during the English reformation?

Elizabeth I

6

What was the name of the first successful English settlement?

Jamestown

7

Who was Jamestown named after?

King James I

8

What year was Jamestown established?

1607

9

What was the main cash crop for Jamestown?

Tobacco

10

What did the Mayflower Compact establish?

The first government of Massachusetts outside of the English king

11

When was the Mayflower Compact established?

1620

12

Who was the translator and friend for the American Indians during the Mayflower Compact?

Squanto

13

When did the Great Migration for the Puritans start?

1629

14

Pilgrams

Separate from the church

15

Puritans

Want to purify the church

16

Who is John Winthrop?

He was the Puritan leader who was a major influence of both political parties in the 20th century through his discovery of his "shining city on a hill"

17

What is the "shining city on a hill"?

A perfect society

18

Why did many puritans return to England in 1641?

To fight in the English Civil War

19

In 1649, what forever changed the English social contract?

King Charles I was beheaded by parliament

20

How did King Charles I beheading change the English social contract?

Parliament became the supreme embodiment of the state instead of the monarchy

21

Who wrote the Leviathan?

Thomas Hobbes

22

Who was the dictator after the beheading of King Charles I?

Oliver Cromwell

23

What is mercantilism?

Colonies are seen as both sources for raw materials and captured markets

24

What are the Navigation Acts?

Oliver Cromwell attempting to control trade of the mercantilist society

25

When did Oliver Cromwell die and what happened to the monarchy?

1658 and the monarchy was restored

26

1685

Catholic King James II ascended from the throne

27

Who replaced King James II in 1688 during the Glorious revolution?

William and Mary

28

Who was John Locke during the Glorious Revolution?

An important philosopher who wrote the Second Treatise on Government which would greatly influence the American founding fathers

29

What did the Second Treatise on Government propose?

If the government becomes abusive the people are able to fight against the government and also proposed that a central function of the government was to protect private property

30

What is Salutary Neglect?

Americans were able to conduct their own affairs without much interference from the crown

31

What do Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams have in common?

They were both kicked out of Puritan colonies because they did not practice like everyone else

32

What were the three major European powers left in North America by the late 18th century?

Spain, France and Britain

33

When was the French and Indian War?

A war between Britain and France for control of the Ohio River Valley in 1754

34

Who won the French and Indian War?

The British

35

What was the outcome of the French and Indian War?

The British chose to levy taxes for the first time on colonists to raise revenues which gave rise to "Taxation without Representation"

36

Who was Patrick Henry?

He coined the term "Give me liberty or give me death"

37

Who was the King during the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea party?

King George III

38

When was the Boston Massacre?

1770

39

When was the Boston Tea Party?

1773

40

Who was John Adams?

Hew defended the British officers for their role in killing Americans who had attacked them

41

What was the Boston Tea Party?

American dressed like Indians and threw British tea into the Boston Harbor

42

What were the Intolerable Acts of 1774? (Coercive Acts)

The harsh British response to the destruction of property during the British Tea Party

43

Who Sam Adams?

A leader of the rebel movement known as the Sons of Liberty in Boston

44

When were the battles of Lexington and Concord?

April 19, 1775

45

Who primarily wrote the Declaration of Independence?

Thomas Jefferson

46

When was the Declaration of Independence signed?

July 4, 1776

47

What is the Wealth of Nation?

A magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith regarding wealth

48

Who wrote Common Sense?

Thomas Paine

49

What year was Common Sense written?

1776

50

What was the purpose of Common Sense?

To mobilize colonists to support the rebellion

51

Who wrote the series of pamphlets The American Crisis?

Thomas Paine

52

When was George Washington elected president?

1789

53

Who was George Washington?

He was the General of the Continental Army

54

What was George Washington's first major victory?

In December 1776, after a surprise attack on the Hessians after crossing the Delaware River

55

What is Valley Forge?

Where George Washington and Continental Army spent the long winter (this was a desperate period)

56

What is the significance of Saratoga during the American Revolutionary War?

It convinced King Louis XVI of France to enter into conflict against Britain and help the Americans who were starving and short on supplies

57

When was the battle of Saratoga?

1777

58

What is the significance of the Battle of Yorktown on October 19, 1781?

British General Cornwallis surrendered his troops to the Americans which would effectively end the war although some fighting would continue until the Treaty of Paris

59

When was the Treaty of Paris signed?

September 3, 1783

60

Who negotiated the Treaty of Paris?

Founding father Ben Franklin

61

After the American Revolution, what was the governing document?

The Articles of Confederation until 1789

62

What was Shays rebellion in 1786 and 1787?

An uprising of farmers in Massachusetts against state and local enforcement of tax collections

63

Who lead Shays rebellion?

Daniel Shays

64

When does the US Constitution become active?

1789

65

Who lead the federalists?

James Madison (father of the Constitution) and Alexander Hamilton

66

What are the Federalist Papers?

A series of essays to help make the federalists case during the writing of the US Constitution

67

What was the most cited Federalist paper?

#10 which deals with hazards of political factions

68

What was the purpose of the Bill of Rights?

The initiative of the anti federalists to protect individual liberty from the power of the federal government

69

When did political parties begin?

During the election between John Adams and Thomas Jefferson in 1800

70

What is the significance of Marbury vs. Madison?

When John Marshall, Chief Justice of Supreme Court establishes judiciary review

71

What is judicial review?

This allows courts to rule on the constitutionality of certain laws in makes the judiciary a co equal branch of US government

72

What are the three branches of the US Government?

Executive, legislative and judiciary

73

What was the first US war on foreign soil?

The first Barbary War

74

Who was the first President of the US to enter war on foreign soil?

Thomas Jefferson - both G. Washington and J. Adams tried to keep the US from fighting in European conflicts

75

What was the Barbary War?

In 1801 to 1805 it was a result of high tributes imposed by Barbary pirates on American merchant ships

76

What is the Louisiana Purchase?

When Jefferson bought territory from France and greatly expanded the US in 1803

77

When was the Lewis and Clark exploration?

1803

78

What is impressment?

The act of taking men into the navy by force with or without notice (similar to a draft)

79

What was the War of 1812?

It was fought over the impressment of American sailors and established the US as a military power that would not be pushed around

80

Who was Andrew Jackson?

The 7th American president and the father of the Democratic party because of its appeals to the common man

81

How did Andrew Jackson gain is reputation?

Through his bravery and victory at the Battle of New Orleans in 1815

82

Who was Shawnee ruler, Tecumseh?

He created a large tribal confederacy to protect Native American interests and his death during the War of 1812 was the beginning of the Native Americans end

83

What is Manifest Destiny?

The belief that the fate of the United States was to stretch from sea to shining sea

84

What is the Mexican American War?

Spanned from 1846 to 1847 and fought in part because Texas was annexed

85

When was the modern Republican Party found?

1854

86

Who was the first Republican Party president to be elected?

Abraham Lincoln in 1861

87

Who killed Abraham Lincoln?

John Wilkes Booth in 1865

88

When were the first shots of the Civil War fired?

In 1861 after South Carolina seceded from the union on Fort Sumter from Charleston

89

Who was the president of the Confederacy?

Jefferson Davis

90

What was the first major battle of the civil war?

The battle of Bull Run in 1861

91

How did Andrew Jackson gain the nickname "Stonewall Jackson" in the first battle of Bull Run?

Because he stood his ground

92

When was the battle of Antietam?

1862 - the bloodiest stand in American History

93

What is the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863?

Lincoln freed the slaves in rebellious states and kept European powers from allying with the South

94

What was the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863?

Another major tuning point in the war in Pennsylvania

95

Who was William Tecumseh Sherman?

He served as a General who marched to the sea to break the will of the Confederate people

96

When did Robert E Lee surrender to the Union General?

1865

97

Where did Robert E lee surrender?

The Appomattox Courthouse

98

What was the years of the Civil War?

1865-1867

99

What is the time period after the Civil War called?

Reconstruction

100

Who was the first president to be impeached and when?

Andrew Johnson - 1868

101

Who was the other president during reconstruction?

Ulysses S Grant

102

When was Ulysses S Grant elected President?

1872

103

What did the 13th amendment address in 1865?

Abolishing slavery

104

14th amendment in 1868?

Adjust citizen issues important to that period and established equal protection to all citizens under the law

105

15th amendment in 1870?

Extended the right to vote to black men