Flashcards in Review Test Deck (105):
A foundational document that helped develop the US government
Columbus found the New World for King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain
John Cabot in 1492
Sailed from Bristol to England to discover modern day Canada for Henry the 7 in England
Who turned England from a Catholic realm to Protestant realm during the English reformation?
King Henry the 8
Who was King Henry VIII wife during the English reformation?
What was the name of the first successful English settlement?
Who was Jamestown named after?
King James I
What year was Jamestown established?
What was the main cash crop for Jamestown?
What did the Mayflower Compact establish?
The first government of Massachusetts outside of the English king
When was the Mayflower Compact established?
Who was the translator and friend for the American Indians during the Mayflower Compact?
When did the Great Migration for the Puritans start?
Separate from the church
Want to purify the church
Who is John Winthrop?
He was the Puritan leader who was a major influence of both political parties in the 20th century through his discovery of his "shining city on a hill"
What is the "shining city on a hill"?
A perfect society
Why did many puritans return to England in 1641?
To fight in the English Civil War
In 1649, what forever changed the English social contract?
King Charles I was beheaded by parliament
How did King Charles I beheading change the English social contract?
Parliament became the supreme embodiment of the state instead of the monarchy
Who wrote the Leviathan?
Who was the dictator after the beheading of King Charles I?
What is mercantilism?
Colonies are seen as both sources for raw materials and captured markets
What are the Navigation Acts?
Oliver Cromwell attempting to control trade of the mercantilist society
When did Oliver Cromwell die and what happened to the monarchy?
1658 and the monarchy was restored
Catholic King James II ascended from the throne
Who replaced King James II in 1688 during the Glorious revolution?
William and Mary
Who was John Locke during the Glorious Revolution?
An important philosopher who wrote the Second Treatise on Government which would greatly influence the American founding fathers
What did the Second Treatise on Government propose?
If the government becomes abusive the people are able to fight against the government and also proposed that a central function of the government was to protect private property
What is Salutary Neglect?
Americans were able to conduct their own affairs without much interference from the crown
What do Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams have in common?
They were both kicked out of Puritan colonies because they did not practice like everyone else
What were the three major European powers left in North America by the late 18th century?
Spain, France and Britain
When was the French and Indian War?
A war between Britain and France for control of the Ohio River Valley in 1754
Who won the French and Indian War?
What was the outcome of the French and Indian War?
The British chose to levy taxes for the first time on colonists to raise revenues which gave rise to "Taxation without Representation"
Who was Patrick Henry?
He coined the term "Give me liberty or give me death"
Who was the King during the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea party?
King George III
When was the Boston Massacre?
When was the Boston Tea Party?
Who was John Adams?
Hew defended the British officers for their role in killing Americans who had attacked them
What was the Boston Tea Party?
American dressed like Indians and threw British tea into the Boston Harbor
What were the Intolerable Acts of 1774? (Coercive Acts)
The harsh British response to the destruction of property during the British Tea Party
Who Sam Adams?
A leader of the rebel movement known as the Sons of Liberty in Boston
When were the battles of Lexington and Concord?
April 19, 1775
Who primarily wrote the Declaration of Independence?
When was the Declaration of Independence signed?
July 4, 1776
What is the Wealth of Nation?
A magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith regarding wealth
Who wrote Common Sense?
What year was Common Sense written?
What was the purpose of Common Sense?
To mobilize colonists to support the rebellion
Who wrote the series of pamphlets The American Crisis?
When was George Washington elected president?
Who was George Washington?
He was the General of the Continental Army
What was George Washington's first major victory?
In December 1776, after a surprise attack on the Hessians after crossing the Delaware River
What is Valley Forge?
Where George Washington and Continental Army spent the long winter (this was a desperate period)
What is the significance of Saratoga during the American Revolutionary War?
It convinced King Louis XVI of France to enter into conflict against Britain and help the Americans who were starving and short on supplies
When was the battle of Saratoga?
What is the significance of the Battle of Yorktown on October 19, 1781?
British General Cornwallis surrendered his troops to the Americans which would effectively end the war although some fighting would continue until the Treaty of Paris
When was the Treaty of Paris signed?
September 3, 1783
Who negotiated the Treaty of Paris?
Founding father Ben Franklin
After the American Revolution, what was the governing document?
The Articles of Confederation until 1789
What was Shays rebellion in 1786 and 1787?
An uprising of farmers in Massachusetts against state and local enforcement of tax collections
Who lead Shays rebellion?
When does the US Constitution become active?
Who lead the federalists?
James Madison (father of the Constitution) and Alexander Hamilton
What are the Federalist Papers?
A series of essays to help make the federalists case during the writing of the US Constitution
What was the most cited Federalist paper?
#10 which deals with hazards of political factions
What was the purpose of the Bill of Rights?
The initiative of the anti federalists to protect individual liberty from the power of the federal government
When did political parties begin?
During the election between John Adams and Thomas Jefferson in 1800
What is the significance of Marbury vs. Madison?
When John Marshall, Chief Justice of Supreme Court establishes judiciary review
What is judicial review?
This allows courts to rule on the constitutionality of certain laws in makes the judiciary a co equal branch of US government
What are the three branches of the US Government?
Executive, legislative and judiciary
What was the first US war on foreign soil?
The first Barbary War
Who was the first President of the US to enter war on foreign soil?
Thomas Jefferson - both G. Washington and J. Adams tried to keep the US from fighting in European conflicts
What was the Barbary War?
In 1801 to 1805 it was a result of high tributes imposed by Barbary pirates on American merchant ships
What is the Louisiana Purchase?
When Jefferson bought territory from France and greatly expanded the US in 1803
When was the Lewis and Clark exploration?
What is impressment?
The act of taking men into the navy by force with or without notice (similar to a draft)
What was the War of 1812?
It was fought over the impressment of American sailors and established the US as a military power that would not be pushed around
Who was Andrew Jackson?
The 7th American president and the father of the Democratic party because of its appeals to the common man
How did Andrew Jackson gain is reputation?
Through his bravery and victory at the Battle of New Orleans in 1815
Who was Shawnee ruler, Tecumseh?
He created a large tribal confederacy to protect Native American interests and his death during the War of 1812 was the beginning of the Native Americans end
What is Manifest Destiny?
The belief that the fate of the United States was to stretch from sea to shining sea
What is the Mexican American War?
Spanned from 1846 to 1847 and fought in part because Texas was annexed
When was the modern Republican Party found?
Who was the first Republican Party president to be elected?
Abraham Lincoln in 1861
Who killed Abraham Lincoln?
John Wilkes Booth in 1865
When were the first shots of the Civil War fired?
In 1861 after South Carolina seceded from the union on Fort Sumter from Charleston
Who was the president of the Confederacy?
What was the first major battle of the civil war?
The battle of Bull Run in 1861
How did Andrew Jackson gain the nickname "Stonewall Jackson" in the first battle of Bull Run?
Because he stood his ground
When was the battle of Antietam?
1862 - the bloodiest stand in American History
What is the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863?
Lincoln freed the slaves in rebellious states and kept European powers from allying with the South
What was the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863?
Another major tuning point in the war in Pennsylvania
Who was William Tecumseh Sherman?
He served as a General who marched to the sea to break the will of the Confederate people
When did Robert E Lee surrender to the Union General?
Where did Robert E lee surrender?
The Appomattox Courthouse
What was the years of the Civil War?
What is the time period after the Civil War called?
Who was the first president to be impeached and when?
Andrew Johnson - 1868
Who was the other president during reconstruction?
Ulysses S Grant
When was Ulysses S Grant elected President?
What did the 13th amendment address in 1865?
14th amendment in 1868?
Adjust citizen issues important to that period and established equal protection to all citizens under the law