US History 2: Chapter 17 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in US History 2: Chapter 17 Deck (40):

Horace Greeley

Editor of the New York Tribune who coined the term "Go West Young Man!"


What are some physical features of the Great Plains?

Treeless, nearly flat, and endless "sea of grassy hillocks" extending from the Mississippi to the Rocky Mountains


What was another name for the Great Plains?

The Great American Desert


What was the lifestyle of the Pueblo groups?

They were cultivators of corn who lived on the sub desert plateau of present-day New Mexico and Arizona, they also built communal houses made out of adobe brick on high mesas or in cracks in the cliffs to stay safe from being harassed by neighboring tribes


What was another name for the nomadic tribes/groups?

Camp Dwellers


What was the lifestyle of the nomadic tribes?

They lived in tepees or mud huts, grew some crops to supplement their hunting, and moved readily from place to place


What were the most known traits of the Navajo?

They herded sheep and produced beautiful ornamental silver, baskets, and blankets


What were the most known traits of the Apache?

They were fierce fighters and were feared by the whites and fellow Indians across the southwestern plains


What was the lifestyle of the Klamath, Chinook, Yurok, and Shasta tribes?

They built plank houses and canoes, worked extensively with wood, and evolved a complex social and political organization


Quanah Parker

The last Comanche chief


Indian Intercourse Act

Prohibited any white person from entering Indian country without a license



It assigned define boundaries to each tribe


Why did Concentration not work as people had hoped?

Accustomed to hunting widely for buffalo, many Native Americans refused to stay within their assigned areas


Ghost Dances

A set of dances and rites that grew from a vision of a Paiute messiah named Wovoka


Dawes Severalty Act 1887

Divided tribal lands into small plots for distribution among members of the tribe


What was the most significant blow to Indian tribal life?

The virtual extermination of the buffalo, the Plains Indians' chief resource and the basis of their unique way of life


Wounded Knee Massacre 1890

Troopers of the 7th Cavalry, under orders to stop the Ghost Dance religion among the Sioux, took Chief Big Foot and his followers to a camp on Wounded Knee in South Dakota where 200 Native American were killed


Who fired the first shots at The Wounded Knee Massacre?

No one knows


Gold Rush of 1849

Prospectors made tje first gold strikes along the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California, touching off a mining boom that set the pattern for subsequent strikes in other regions


Overland Trail

The route from the Mississippi Valley to the Pacific Coast in the last half of the nineteenth century


Homestead Act of 1862

Legislation granting 160 acres to anyone who paid a $10 registration fee and pledged to live on and cultivate the land for 5 years


National Reclamation Act 1902

Set aside most of the proceeds from the sale of public land in sixteen western states to fund irrigation projects


Placer Mining

Mining that included using a shovel and washing pan to separate gold from the ore in streams and riverbeds


Comstock Lode

Discovered in 1859 near Virginia City, Nevada, this ore deposit was the richest discovery in the history of mining


Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882

Excluded Chinese immigrants for ten years and denied US citizenship to Chinese nationals



A group of about 6000 African Americans who left Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas in 1879 for freer lives as farmers or laborers in Kansas


Dry Farming

A farming technique developed to allow farming in the more arid parts of the West where settlers had to deal with far less rainfall than they had eat of the Mississippi


Bonanza Farms

Huge farms covering thousands of acres of the Great Plains


Timber Culture Act of 1873

Attempted to adjust the Homestead Act to western conditions


Why did the Homestead Act not work as Congress had hoped?

Few farmers and laborers had the cash to move to the frontier, buy farm, equipment, and wait out the year or two before the farm became self-supporting


Desert Land Act of 1877

Allowed individuals to obtain 640 acres in the arid states for $1.25 an acre, provided they irrigate part of it within three years


The Timer and Stone Act of 1878

Permitted anyone in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington to buy up to 160 acres of forest land for $2.50 an acre


Who did the Timber and Stone Act of 1878 apply to?

Only to land "unfit for cultivation" and valuable chiefly for stone or timber


Northwest Ordinance of 1787

Established the rules by which territories became states


What were the major components of territorial government in West, which began to function under the Northwest Ordinance of 1787?

Until they obtained statehood, then, the territories depended on the federal government for their existence


In what ways did the Spanish influence Southwestern life and institutions?

The Spanish established the present-day economic structure of the Southwest, they brought mining, stock raising, and irrigated farming, they brought new laws and ranching methods as well as chaps and the burro, and they created the legal framework for distributing land and water


What were the new farming methods developed in the American West?

Dry farming, the chilled iron plow, the spring tooth harrow, and the first baling press


What was the impact of the new farming techniques?

It created huge bonanza farms


What were the "Boomers" and the "Sooners" of Oklahoma?

They reflected the speed of the western settlement


Turner's Thesis

Put forth by historian Frederick Jackson Turner, in 1893, this thesis asserted that the existence of a frontier and its settlement had shaped American character