Flashcards in US History 2: Chapter 19 Deck (35):
What are the major changes in American lifestyles from 1877-1890?
There was explosive urban growth that included immigration and movement from countryside
What were the developments in city architecture and housing patterns in the late 19th century including tenements?
Steel and glass permit construction of skyscrapers; streetcars allowed growth for the suburbs
What are tenements?
They house working class and were constantly overcrowded
What were the problems with tenements?
Overcrowding, inadequate sanitation, poor ventilation, and polluted water
What were the urban problems with overcrowding?
Poor public health and juvenile crime
What were the social characteristics of immigrants from 1877 to 1890?
Young unskilled males who settled along the eastern coast, most moved for economic reasons and often knew someone in the US
What was the population makeup of the immigrants by 1900?
80% of urban dwellers were immigrants
What was Ellis Island's place in immigration history?
It was a check point for all immigrants
Where did the immigrants have to enter the US through?
What were the social characteristics of immigrants from 1890 to 1910?
They tended to be Catholics or Jews, most were unskilled and uneducated, and they stuck together in close knit communities
Where did most of the immigrants come from in 1890 - 1910?
Southern and Eastern Europe
How did the urban political machines work from 1850 to 1900?
They traded services for votes headed by influential leaders ("Bosses")
William M. Tweed provided a model for all of the Bosses and he was head of the Tweed Ring and he rose through the ranks of Tammany Hall and plundered New York for tens of millions of dollars
What is "The House that Tweed Built"?
The New York County Courthouse
What were the demographic changes in society?
There was an increase in Southern and Eastern European immigrants and a decrease in Northern and Western European immigrants and there was an extreme population growth
How did families change during the time after reconstruction?
Families had more children, life expectancy increased due to improved health care, and for blacks and other minorities life expectancy was lower due to health care
How did diets change?
Packaged food became more popular and commercially canned food became cheaper and safer
What was Louis Pasteur's contribution?
He discovered germs cause infection and disease and he created a new science of microbiology and led the way to develop vaccines and other preventative measure
What were Mugwumps?
Mostly educated and upper class who worked to end corruption in politics
What was the Temperance Movement?
The Women's Christian Temperance Union who advocated total abstinence from all alcoholic beverages in 1874
What were the popular types of entertainment from 1877 to 1890?
Organized spectator sports because popular along with cards and dominoes and classical and rag time music flourished
What organized spectator sport became popular during this time?
How did the average American middle class family change from 1877 to 1890?
As many as 1/3 of families took in borders or relatives to help pay rent and remained a strong family unit; middle class families turned inward and became more self contained
How did family roles change in middle class families?
Women and children became more isolated and the fathers began to move their families to the suburbs
What were the main American education systems from 1877 to 1890?
The trend was toward universal education; school was the primary means to train people for life and work in industrialization
What was the court case that established the "separate but equal" doctrine?
Plesy vs. Ferguson 1894 upheld the concept of segregation
How did Plesy vs. Ferguson shape the South?
It made it difficult for blacks to gain prosperity in society and isolated them
What were the factors fostering the growth in higher education to 1900?
The Moral Land Grant Act of 1862, private philanthropy, and they moved from classical curriculum to "reality and practicality"
What was the Moral Land Grant of 1862?
Large grants of land to the states for the establishment of colleges to "teach agriculture and the mechanic arts" and established 69 land grant institutions
What was the place of Blacks in higher education from 1860 to 1900?
They turned to black colleges such as the Hampton Normal and Industrial Institute in Virginia and the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama
What was the goal of Booker T. Washington's "Atlanta Compromise"?
Rather than fighting for equal rights, blacks should acquire property and show they were worthy or their rights
How did Henry George propose to close the gap between America's rich and poor?
Tax unearned income on land which was the source of most wealth
Opened up Hull House in the heart of the Chicago slums
How did the depression of 1893 impact reform?
It revealed insufficiency of private charity, created new professionalism in social work, new efforts to understand poverty's resources, and increasing calls for government interventions