Flashcards in Chapter 28 Deck (41):
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the US, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdam
When was the Postdam conference held?
What was the result of the Potsdam Conference?
They were unable to agree about the future of Europe and it led to the Cold War
A senationalist campaign by Senator Joseph McCarthy against supposed communists in government that began in 1950 and ended when the Senate censured him in 1954
Taft - Hartley Act
This 1947 anti - union legislation outlawed the closed shop and secondary boycotts. It also authorized the president to seek injunctions to prevent strikes that threatened national security
National Security Council planning paper No. 68 redefined America's national defense policy.
What did the NSC-68 do?
It committed the US to a massive military buildup to meet the challenge posed by the Soviet Union
National Security Act
Congress passed the National Security Act in 1947 in response to perceived threats from the Soviet Union after World War 2
What did the National Security Act establish?
The Department of Defense and created the Central Intelligence Agency and National Security Council
In 1948, in response to a Soviet land blockade of Berlin, the US carried out massive effort to supply the 2 million Berlin citizens by air
North Atlantic Treat Organization
In 1949, the US, Canada, and then European nations formed this military mutual defense pact
In 1947, a massive aid program to rebuild the war-torn economies of Western Europe
What was the Marshall Plan motivated by?
Both humanitarian concerns and fear of communism
In 1947, President Truman asked Congress for money to aid the Greek and Turkish governments that were then threatened by communist rebels
The basic strategy of the US throughout the Cold War
Who proposed containment?
Bernard Baruch presented a plan to control and eventually outlaw nuclear weapons
Describe events in Europe after its division between the free world and communist camps
Explain how the Soviets rebuilt their economy after World War 2?
Loans and lend-lease
Name the supporters of the containment policy
George C. Marshall, Dean Acheson and George Kennan
What were the results of Russia's land blockade in West Berlin?
It marked the end of the initial phase of the Cold War, it cut Europe in two, the rivalry that began in Europe would spread into a worldwide contest among super powers
What were the key elements of the US defense policy from 1945 to 1960?
The National Security Act, the air force, the nuclear bomb, and the hydrogen bomb
What happened to China in 1949?
The Chinese Revolution
Who were the key players in the Chinese Revolution?
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao
What were the results of China's fall to the communists?
A Japanese - American security pact led to the end of American occupation by 1952
Where did the showdown between Russia and the US happen?
Who did the Russians occupy the North Korea under?
Kim Il Sung
What was Truman's political weakness?
He failed to pursue a coherent legislative program on his own
Who were the candidates of the 1948 election?
Harry S. Truman, Thomas E. Dewey, and J. Strom Thrumond
Who won the 1948 election?
Why was Truman's election a surprise?
No one liked his plans
What were the events that encouraged the rise of McCarthyism?
He randomly called people a communist and it scared everybody
What were the events that caused the downfall of McCarthyism?
McCarthy v Army
What happened with the French and Ho Chi Minh in Indochina during the Eisenhower administration?
Ho Chi Minh wanted Vietnam to be independent but Eisenhower and the French stopped that
Eissenhower promised to protect the territories in the west pacific under the jurisdiction of the republic of china"
How did the Cold War begin?
The United States and the Soviet Union discovered that their interests in Europe conflicted
What was containment?
It was the American policy of preventing Soviet power and influence from expanding
Why was containment adopted?
To preserve American interests without excessively risking war
How did the Cold War expand to Europe?
The US and the Soviet Union took opposite sides in the Chinese civil war
How did the Cold War affect life in America?
It spawned fears of Communist subversion and it led to a campaign to ensure loyalty and fostered McCarthyism