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Flashcards in Chapter 28 Deck (41):
1

Potsdam Conference?

The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the US, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdam

2

When was the Postdam conference held?

July 1945

3

What was the result of the Potsdam Conference?

They were unable to agree about the future of Europe and it led to the Cold War

4

McCarthysim

A senationalist campaign by Senator Joseph McCarthy against supposed communists in government that began in 1950 and ended when the Senate censured him in 1954

5

Taft - Hartley Act

This 1947 anti - union legislation outlawed the closed shop and secondary boycotts. It also authorized the president to seek injunctions to prevent strikes that threatened national security

6

NSC-68

National Security Council planning paper No. 68 redefined America's national defense policy.

7

What did the NSC-68 do?

It committed the US to a massive military buildup to meet the challenge posed by the Soviet Union

8

National Security Act

Congress passed the National Security Act in 1947 in response to perceived threats from the Soviet Union after World War 2

9

What did the National Security Act establish?

The Department of Defense and created the Central Intelligence Agency and National Security Council

10

Berlin Airlift

In 1948, in response to a Soviet land blockade of Berlin, the US carried out massive effort to supply the 2 million Berlin citizens by air

11

North Atlantic Treat Organization

In 1949, the US, Canada, and then European nations formed this military mutual defense pact

12

Marshall Plan

In 1947, a massive aid program to rebuild the war-torn economies of Western Europe

13

What was the Marshall Plan motivated by?

Both humanitarian concerns and fear of communism

14

Truman Doctrine

In 1947, President Truman asked Congress for money to aid the Greek and Turkish governments that were then threatened by communist rebels

15

Containment

The basic strategy of the US throughout the Cold War

16

Who proposed containment?

George Kenman

17

Baruch Plan

Bernard Baruch presented a plan to control and eventually outlaw nuclear weapons

18

Describe events in Europe after its division between the free world and communist camps

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19

Explain how the Soviets rebuilt their economy after World War 2?

Loans and lend-lease

20

Name the supporters of the containment policy

George C. Marshall, Dean Acheson and George Kennan

21

What were the results of Russia's land blockade in West Berlin?

It marked the end of the initial phase of the Cold War, it cut Europe in two, the rivalry that began in Europe would spread into a worldwide contest among super powers

22

What were the key elements of the US defense policy from 1945 to 1960?

The National Security Act, the air force, the nuclear bomb, and the hydrogen bomb

23

What happened to China in 1949?

The Chinese Revolution

24

Who were the key players in the Chinese Revolution?

Chiang Kai-shek and Mao

25

What were the results of China's fall to the communists?

A Japanese - American security pact led to the end of American occupation by 1952

26

Where did the showdown between Russia and the US happen?

Korea

27

Who did the Russians occupy the North Korea under?

Kim Il Sung

28

What was Truman's political weakness?

He failed to pursue a coherent legislative program on his own

29

Who were the candidates of the 1948 election?

Harry S. Truman, Thomas E. Dewey, and J. Strom Thrumond

30

Who won the 1948 election?

Truman

31

Why was Truman's election a surprise?

No one liked his plans

32

What were the events that encouraged the rise of McCarthyism?

He randomly called people a communist and it scared everybody

33

What were the events that caused the downfall of McCarthyism?

McCarthy v Army

34

What happened with the French and Ho Chi Minh in Indochina during the Eisenhower administration?

Ho Chi Minh wanted Vietnam to be independent but Eisenhower and the French stopped that

35

Formosa Resolution

Eissenhower promised to protect the territories in the west pacific under the jurisdiction of the republic of china"

36

How did the Cold War begin?

The United States and the Soviet Union discovered that their interests in Europe conflicted

37

What was containment?

It was the American policy of preventing Soviet power and influence from expanding

38

Why was containment adopted?

To preserve American interests without excessively risking war

39

How did the Cold War expand to Europe?

The US and the Soviet Union took opposite sides in the Chinese civil war

40

How did the Cold War affect life in America?

It spawned fears of Communist subversion and it led to a campaign to ensure loyalty and fostered McCarthyism

41

How successful was Eisenhower at dealing with the foreign policy issues facing the US?

He was experienced