(second midterm) Lecture 10 (5/9/16) PT. 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in (second midterm) Lecture 10 (5/9/16) PT. 2 Deck (41):
1

Antibodies are made by both _____________ and _____________.

B-lymphocytes
T-lymphocytes

2

T-lymphocytes:

specific antibodies

3

B-lymphocytes:

specific antibodies and natural antibodies

4

Antibodies belong to a group of plasma proteins called what?

globulins

5

Antibodies are made up of what?

four polypeptides (amino acid chains)
2 longer and larger, 2 shorter and smaller
shape of a Y

6

Where are the variable regions of antibodies? What does it have?

the very tips of the arms of the Y
-has the potential to bind with particular classes of antigens

7

How does an antibody work?
What is single specificity?

once a raw antibody is stimulated to fit to a specific antigen, it can then react with only that antigen
called *single specificity*
-it can fit as precisely as a lock and key to an antigen

8

Antibodies are anchored in the cell membrane of ____________ and _____________.

B-lymphocytes
T-lymphocytes

9

Specific components of T-lymphocytes:

Natural Killer cells
Helper cells
Memory cells
Suppressor cells

10

T-lymphocyte roles:

initiate immune response
maintain immune response
control immune response

11

B-lymphocytes mature where? Then where are they carried? How?

Mature in bone marrow
carried to lymphoid tissue
via blood stream and lymphatic circulation

12

Other lymphocytes can be generated how?

via mitosis

13

Other lymphocytes can be generated via mitosis from what?

B lymphocytes resident in lymphoid tissues

14

Immature lymphocytes go to the thymus gland. What do they become?

T-lymphocytes

15

T-lymphocyte types:

Cytotoxic T-cells
Memory T-cells
Helper T-cells
Suppressor T-cells

16

Cytotoxic T-cells:

type of t-lymphocyte
directly attacks antigens or abnormal cells

17

Memory T-cells:

type of t-lymphocyte
respond to antigens that have been encountered before; they do so by making many copies of self via mitosis

18

Helper T-cells:

type of t-lymphocyte
stimulate activity of both B and T lymphocytes

19

What is critical to B lymphocytes? Why?

Helper T-cells
they are required to stimulate B-cells to make antibodies

20

Suppressor T-cells:

type of t-lymphocyte
can inhibit B and T cells to modulate and control immune response

21

When do T-cells recognize antigens? How do they activate?

when they are bound to plasma membrane of another cell
there must be a specific match between the T cell and the presenting antigen or there will be NO activation

22

Once stimulated, T-cells make what kind of cells? For what?

Cytotoxic t-cells and Memory t-cells
for invader destruction and future responses respectively

23

What is sensitization?

initial binding between a B-cell and an antigen

24

B-cell will not undergo complete activation until facilitated by what?

a Helper t-cell

25

What do Memory t-cells secrete?

cytokines

26

What do cytokines do?

stimulate both B cell activation and replication

27

Cell division makes 2 kinds of B cells:

plasma cells
B memory cells

28

Plasma cells:

make huge quantities of antibodies
*this is when the effects of an antigen start to become knocked down

29

What are B memory cells for?

they are retained for the next time that same antigen might be encountered
"long term immunity"

30

Because they are involved in immune response, antibodies are called...

immunoglobulin (ig)

31

IgG location:

most common; can pass out of blood vessels (only isotype that can pass through placenta)

32

IgG function:

produced in great quantity subsequent to initial exposure to a particular antigen
IgG transferred from the mother's body protects a newborn until a week after birth

33

IgM is made up of ____ antibodies.

5

34

IgA is made up of ___ antibodies. It is distributed to what?

2
serum, nasal discharge, saliva, breast milk

35

IgD is present of the surface of...

b cells

36

IgE has recently become known as a key factor of...

allergies

37

B-lymphocytes have specific receptors on their cell membrane that bind with invading materials/organisms. They are called...

antibodies

38

Natural antibodies can attach to invaders and with the help of_________, can hold invaders at bay.

lectins
*can't kill them on their own

39

What are natural antibodies?

they begin before birth
they clean up cellular junk and debris
they bind to molecules exposed in dead and dying cells, and induce macrophages to help clean them up

40

HIV is what kind of virus?

a retrovirus (RNA-based)

41

What does HIV do?

enters and disables helper T-lymphocytes
without these, B-lymphocytes can't mature to make antibodies and natural killer cells can't function fully
*an infected person can't produce antibodies against even the simplest of invaders