(final) Lecture 14 (5/25/16) PT. 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in (final) Lecture 14 (5/25/16) PT. 1 Deck (35):
1

(adenohypophysis)
Hypothalamic hormones are enclosed in vesicles that move down the axon and accumulate where?

terminal ends close to pituitary stalk

2

(adenohypophysis)
In response to an action potential, hormones are released from what into where?

vesicles
into pituitary portal system

3

What is manufactured in the hypothalamus but released in the posterior pituitary?

oxytocin
vasopressin

4

What effects control over the secretion of an anterior pituitary hormone?

a hypothalamic hormone

5

What are the hormones that can have the effect of stimulating the release of anterior pituitary hormones? What about inhibiting?

Releasing hormones (RH)
Inhibiting hormones (IH)

6

Oxytocin:

initiates labor
stimulates mammary glands to release milk
stimulates uterine contractions in activities other than labor

7

Vasopressin (ADH):

decreases urine output by increasing DCT and collecting duct permeability

8

Releasing hormones:

stimulates release of anterior pituitary hormones

9

Inhibiting hormones:

inhibit release of anterior pituitary hormones

10

Anterior pituitary gland hormones:

Growth hormone (GH)
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Lutenizing hormone (LH)
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
Prolactin (PRL)

11

Growth hormone (GH):

regulates growth; affects protein, fat, and carb metabolism

12

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH):

controls secretion of thyroxin (from thyroid)

13

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH):

controls secretion of hormones released by adrenal cortex, specifically glucocorticoids

14

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH):

in females, stimulates maturation of egg cells
in males, stimulates nurse cells for sperm maturation

15

Lutenizing hormone (LH):

in males, stimulates secretion of testosterone by testes
in females, stimulates release of ovum by ovary

16

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH):

along with ACTH, affects pigment release in skin

17

Prolactin (PRL):

stimulates milk production (NOT release)

18

The pineal gland is an outgrowth of...

the roof of the diencephalon

19

Pineal gland
Arterial supply:

circulus arteriosus cerebri

20

Pineal gland
Venous drainage:

cavernous venous sinus

21

Pineal gland
Function:

Melatonin; amino acid derivative thought to have connection with regulating sleep cycle

22

Parts of diencephalon:

thalamus
hypothalamus
epithalamus

23

Thymus gland development:

from epithelial cells derived from endoderm and third pair of visceral pouches (3rd gill slit pouch)

24

Thymus gland innervation:

Vagus

25

Thymus gland arterial supply:

branches from internal thoracic artery

26

Thymus gland venous drainage:

thymic veins to brachiocephalic vein

27

Thymus gland function:

thymosin, thymus humeral factor, thymopoietin; convert embryonic lymphocytes into T-cells

28

Thyroid gland development:

develops from endodermal thickening in floor of early pharynx and epithelium of 3rd and 4th gill slit pouches

29

What was the first endocrine gland to appear during development?

thyroid gland

30

Thyroid gland innervation:

vagus

31

Thyroid gland arterial supply:

superior and inferior thyroid arteries

32

Thyroid gland venous drainage:

superior, middle, and inferior thyroid veins

33

The superior, middle, and inferior thyroid veins are tributaries of...

internal jugular veins (superior and middle) and left brachiocephalic vein (inferior)

34

Thyroid gland functions:

thyroxin - regular rate of metabolism
calcitonin - decreases levels of calcium in the blood by inhibiting osteoclasts and increasing calcium excretion

35

In the thyroid gland, how does calcitonin decrease levels of calcium?

inhibits osteoclasts