Flashcards in (final) Lecture 14 (5/25/16) PT. 1 Deck (35):
Hypothalamic hormones are enclosed in vesicles that move down the axon and accumulate where?
terminal ends close to pituitary stalk
In response to an action potential, hormones are released from what into where?
into pituitary portal system
What is manufactured in the hypothalamus but released in the posterior pituitary?
What effects control over the secretion of an anterior pituitary hormone?
a hypothalamic hormone
What are the hormones that can have the effect of stimulating the release of anterior pituitary hormones? What about inhibiting?
Releasing hormones (RH)
Inhibiting hormones (IH)
stimulates mammary glands to release milk
stimulates uterine contractions in activities other than labor
decreases urine output by increasing DCT and collecting duct permeability
stimulates release of anterior pituitary hormones
inhibit release of anterior pituitary hormones
Anterior pituitary gland hormones:
Growth hormone (GH)
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Lutenizing hormone (LH)
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
Growth hormone (GH):
regulates growth; affects protein, fat, and carb metabolism
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH):
controls secretion of thyroxin (from thyroid)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH):
controls secretion of hormones released by adrenal cortex, specifically glucocorticoids
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH):
in females, stimulates maturation of egg cells
in males, stimulates nurse cells for sperm maturation
Lutenizing hormone (LH):
in males, stimulates secretion of testosterone by testes
in females, stimulates release of ovum by ovary
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH):
along with ACTH, affects pigment release in skin
stimulates milk production (NOT release)
The pineal gland is an outgrowth of...
the roof of the diencephalon
circulus arteriosus cerebri
cavernous venous sinus
Melatonin; amino acid derivative thought to have connection with regulating sleep cycle
Parts of diencephalon:
Thymus gland development:
from epithelial cells derived from endoderm and third pair of visceral pouches (3rd gill slit pouch)
Thymus gland innervation:
Thymus gland arterial supply:
branches from internal thoracic artery
Thymus gland venous drainage:
thymic veins to brachiocephalic vein
Thymus gland function:
thymosin, thymus humeral factor, thymopoietin; convert embryonic lymphocytes into T-cells
Thyroid gland development:
develops from endodermal thickening in floor of early pharynx and epithelium of 3rd and 4th gill slit pouches
What was the first endocrine gland to appear during development?
Thyroid gland innervation:
Thyroid gland arterial supply:
superior and inferior thyroid arteries
Thyroid gland venous drainage:
superior, middle, and inferior thyroid veins
The superior, middle, and inferior thyroid veins are tributaries of...
internal jugular veins (superior and middle) and left brachiocephalic vein (inferior)
Thyroid gland functions:
thyroxin - regular rate of metabolism
calcitonin - decreases levels of calcium in the blood by inhibiting osteoclasts and increasing calcium excretion