(second midterm) Lecture 8 (5/2/16) PT. 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in (second midterm) Lecture 8 (5/2/16) PT. 2 Deck (21):
1

What is the tidal volume?

normal breathing (about half a liter per breath)

2

What is inspiratory reserve? Expiratory reserve?

Insp. = the amount you can breathe in past tidal volume
Exp. = the amount you can breathe out past tidal volume

3

What is residual volume?

the amount you will never be able to get out of your lungs

4

What is the vital capacity?

The amount you can physically breathe in and breathe out
Insp. reserve + Exp. reserve + tidal volume

5

What is the total lung volume?

The TOTAL amount that can fit in your lungs, even the stuff you can never push out.
Vital capacity + residual volume

6

Inspiratory reserve + tidal volume =

inspiratory capacity

7

Innervations of...
diaphragm:
scalenes:

diaphragm: phrenic nerves (R & L)
scalenes: C2-7

8

Most of the CO2 in the blood dissociates into...
More of this means...

Carbonic acid
lower pH (more acidic); we need more oxygen

9

Carotid bodies:

Sense pH and communicate with medulla
(they are at junction of internal and external carotid)

10

Aortic body:

Sense pH and communicate with medulla
(they are on the arch of the aorta)

11

The phrenic nerve doesn't spread over the top of the diaphragm. Where does it go?

It goes under it

12

Carotid bodies and aortic bodies tell _________________ about level of carbonic acid.

medullary rhythmicity centers

13

Medullary rhythmicity centers can then increase activity of _______________ for deeper breathing.

apneustic area

14

Decreased CO2 is called _______________.

respiratory alkalosis
(higher pH)

15

Medullary rhythmicity centers can increase activity of _______________ for shallower breathing.

pneumotaxic area

16

Each alveolus is surrounded by what?

capillary plexus

17

In capillary plexus, the deoxygenated blood comes from ________________ and oxygenated blood returns via ______________.

deoxygenated = pulmonary artery
oxygenated = pulmonary vein

18

Specialized cells of alveolar lining secrete __________.

Surfactants

19

What do surfactants do?

reduce surface tension; prevents fluid from beading up on alveolar surface
prevents collapse of alveoli due to concentrated fluid weight
*thinner layer of fluid makes gas diffusion easier

20

Alveoli contain lots of phagocytic cells called...
What do they do?

alveolar macrophages
ingest and destroy microorganisms and other foreign substances (from breathing them in)

21

The ganglia between pre- and postganglionic neurons are located where?

on bronchioles themselves