(final) Lecture 16 (6/6/16) PT. 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in (final) Lecture 16 (6/6/16) PT. 2 Deck (44):
1

Components of broad ligament:

mesovarium
mesosalpinx
mesometrium

2

In males, each germinal cell produces...

four haploid cells
(each one becomes viable sperm cell)

3

In females, what happens to those four cells?

only one will be viable
the other three degenerate

4

Before first meiotic division in females, each germinal cell remains in suspended development. What are these called?

primary oocyte
(diploid)

5

The first meiotic division is not completed until when?

puberty, when FSH triggers ovarian cycle

6

After first meiotic division, the remaining largest cell is the _____________.

secondary oocyte
(haploid)

7

The second meiotic division is not completed until...

fertilization

8

Each primary oocyte is packaged in what?

a follicle
(epithelial vesicle)

9

2 basic stages of ovarian cycle:

follicular phase
luteal phase

10

Follicular phase (basic):

(preovulatory phase)
development and maturation of primary oocyte into secondary oocyte

11

Luteal phase (basic):

(postovulatory phase)
degeneration of empty follicle and preparation of uterus for pregnancy

12

Follicular phases:

Primordial follicle
Primary follicle
Secondary follicle
Tertiary follicle

13

Primordial follicle:

(first in follicular phase)
not yet growing

14

Primary follicle:

(second in follicular phase)
develops granulosa and thecal cells and zona pellucida

15

Secondary follicle:

(third in follicular phase)
follicular fluid develops between inner and outer layers of follicle

16

Tertiary follicle:

(fourth in follicular phase)
fluid fills the antrum, and primary oocyte matures into secondary oocyte, almost ready to be released

17

Luteal phases/structures:

corpus luteum
corpus albicans

18

Corpus luteum:

(first phase of luteal phase)
-what is left of follicle after ovulation
-secretes some estrogen and mostly progesterone (both regulate female menstrual cycle)

19

Corpus albicans:

(second phase of luteal phase)
degenerated follicle
"a little scar of connective tissue"

20

What exactly is ovulation?

the release of a secondary oocyte from a mature follicle

21

Ovulation occurs in response to high concentrations of what?

gonadotropins, primarily LH

22

Secondary ooctye is "ejected" from ovary directly through mass of...

ovarian wall

23

Fimbria directs oocyte into ____________, preventing movement into coelom.

fallopian tube

24

In a female, FSH stimulates maturation of...

primary follicle

25

What does the maturing follicle secrete?

estrogen and inhibin
*eventually inhibit will affect FSH level

26

Maturing follicle secretes estrogen.
At low levels, it inhibits secretion of what?
As it increases, it builds what?

LH
uterine wall

27

Rising levels of inhibin decrease what?

FSH levels

28

The dip in FSH levels separates what?

the dominant follicle from the rest

29

High concentration of estrogen leads to increase in what?

LH secretion

30

High levels of estrogen stimulate secretion of LH by what?

anterior pituitary

31

Spike in LH causes maturation of __________ and ovulation of the __________.

primary oocyte
secondary oocyte

32

Maturation of primary oocyte and ovulation of the secondary oocyte leaves the follicle without what?

egg
(corpus luteum)

33

Corpus luteum secretes what? This does what?

estrogen and progesterone
maintains endometrium (for 15-16 days) and inhibits FSH and LH

34

High progesterone levels decrease what?
What does this do?

GNRH pulse rate
-changes in pulse rate and inhibit secretion
-keeps gonadotropin levels low

35

If oocyte is not fertilized and implanted in the uterine wall, the corpus degenerates to what? And what stops producing?

corpus albicans
stops producing estrogen and progesterone

36

Decrease in progesterone and estrogen allows what to slightly increase?

GnRH pulse rate

37

A slightly increased GnRH pulse rate allows an increase in what?

FSH secretion by pituitary gland
*cycle is ready to repeat

38

Without estrogen and progesterone, what breaks down?

endometrium breaks down
(menstruation, spotting, blood, etc.)

39

What is menstruation?

sloughing off of the enlarged endometrial wall along with blood and mucous
*beginning of the cycle

40

Females can store sperm for about how many days?

4

41

In PREGNANT females, the developing embryo has extra-embryonic membranes:

chorion, amnion, yolk sac, allantois

42

What is a chorion?

the embryonic contribution to placenta

43

What does the chorionic portion secrete?

human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

44

hCG prevents what? What happens?

corpus luteum from degenerating
it continues to secrete progesterone and estrogen