Flashcards in (final) Lecture 16 (6/6/16) PT. 2 Deck (44):
Components of broad ligament:
In males, each germinal cell produces...
four haploid cells
(each one becomes viable sperm cell)
In females, what happens to those four cells?
only one will be viable
the other three degenerate
Before first meiotic division in females, each germinal cell remains in suspended development. What are these called?
The first meiotic division is not completed until when?
puberty, when FSH triggers ovarian cycle
After first meiotic division, the remaining largest cell is the _____________.
The second meiotic division is not completed until...
Each primary oocyte is packaged in what?
2 basic stages of ovarian cycle:
Follicular phase (basic):
development and maturation of primary oocyte into secondary oocyte
Luteal phase (basic):
degeneration of empty follicle and preparation of uterus for pregnancy
(first in follicular phase)
not yet growing
(second in follicular phase)
develops granulosa and thecal cells and zona pellucida
(third in follicular phase)
follicular fluid develops between inner and outer layers of follicle
(fourth in follicular phase)
fluid fills the antrum, and primary oocyte matures into secondary oocyte, almost ready to be released
(first phase of luteal phase)
-what is left of follicle after ovulation
-secretes some estrogen and mostly progesterone (both regulate female menstrual cycle)
(second phase of luteal phase)
"a little scar of connective tissue"
What exactly is ovulation?
the release of a secondary oocyte from a mature follicle
Ovulation occurs in response to high concentrations of what?
gonadotropins, primarily LH
Secondary ooctye is "ejected" from ovary directly through mass of...
Fimbria directs oocyte into ____________, preventing movement into coelom.
In a female, FSH stimulates maturation of...
What does the maturing follicle secrete?
estrogen and inhibin
*eventually inhibit will affect FSH level
Maturing follicle secretes estrogen.
At low levels, it inhibits secretion of what?
As it increases, it builds what?
Rising levels of inhibin decrease what?
The dip in FSH levels separates what?
the dominant follicle from the rest
High concentration of estrogen leads to increase in what?
High levels of estrogen stimulate secretion of LH by what?
Spike in LH causes maturation of __________ and ovulation of the __________.
Maturation of primary oocyte and ovulation of the secondary oocyte leaves the follicle without what?
Corpus luteum secretes what? This does what?
estrogen and progesterone
maintains endometrium (for 15-16 days) and inhibits FSH and LH
High progesterone levels decrease what?
What does this do?
GNRH pulse rate
-changes in pulse rate and inhibit secretion
-keeps gonadotropin levels low
If oocyte is not fertilized and implanted in the uterine wall, the corpus degenerates to what? And what stops producing?
stops producing estrogen and progesterone
Decrease in progesterone and estrogen allows what to slightly increase?
GnRH pulse rate
A slightly increased GnRH pulse rate allows an increase in what?
FSH secretion by pituitary gland
*cycle is ready to repeat
Without estrogen and progesterone, what breaks down?
endometrium breaks down
(menstruation, spotting, blood, etc.)
What is menstruation?
sloughing off of the enlarged endometrial wall along with blood and mucous
*beginning of the cycle
Females can store sperm for about how many days?
In PREGNANT females, the developing embryo has extra-embryonic membranes:
chorion, amnion, yolk sac, allantois
What is a chorion?
the embryonic contribution to placenta
What does the chorionic portion secrete?
human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)