(final) Lecture 16 (6/6/16) PT. 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in (final) Lecture 16 (6/6/16) PT. 1 Deck (45):
1

Sperm production takes place in the...

testes

2

Each testis contains around how many coiled tubules? What are they called?

~500 coiled tubules
seminiferous tubules

3

The inner lining of each tubule is lined with germinal tissue, which includes 2 kinds of cells:

germ cells
sustentacular (sertoli or nurse) cells

4

Germ cells:

-through meiosis, these cells produce haploid sperm cells
-all four resultant cells are viable sperm cells

5

Sustentacular cells:

(sertoli or nurse cells)
-nourish and protect germ cells
-secrete lubricating fluid to aid outward movement of sperm as they exit testis
-also produce AMH (anti-Mullerian hormone)

6

What is AMH and what does it do?

(anti-Mullerian hormone)
-produced by sustentacular/nurse cells
-regulates other hormones

7

The sperm exits the testis via what?

efferent ductules

8

The degeneration of the paramesonephric ducts while a male is developing as a fetus is because of what?

sustentacular cells (which produce AMH)

9

Spermatogonia divide first by what?

mitosis
divides into two; one stays in current location and one goes into center of tubule/lumen

10

After mitosis of the spermatogonia, one stays in current location and one goes to center of lumen. Then how does it divide?

meiosis

11

Interstitial endocrinocytes secrete what?

hormones
-androgens
-testosterone

12

The head of sperm contains nucleus and an organelle called a(n)...

acrosome

13

Acrosome:

-organelle in the head of sperm
-contains digestive enzymes that helps sperms to penetrate egg (if present)

14

Seminiferous tubules lead into straight tubules, then into larger set of tubules called...

rete testis

15

Rete testis ultimately drains into larger tubules called _____________ which in turn drain into ____________.

efferent ductules
epididymis

16

Epididymis came from what embryonic structure?

mesonephric duct

17

What else is a derivative of the mesonephric duct?

vas/ductus deferens

18

The tail of the epididymis dilates (expands) into _____________.

ductus deferens

19

The ductus deferens passes up spermatic cord and into the body through what canal?

inguinal

20

As each duct passes behind (dorsal to) bladder, it has appended to it a gland called the...

seminal vesicle

21

Just prior to attachment of the seminal vesicle, the ductus deferens enlarges into a(n)...

ampulla

22

Where is the sperm held right before ejaculation?

ampulla

23

Fluid from seminal vesicle lubricates path, provides energy-rich nutrients for sperm, and does what else?

secretes are slightly alkaline, so they neutralize slight acidic environment of vagina

24

Prostaglandins:

-promote uterine contractions to help facilitate sperm movement up uterus into fallopian tubes.

25

What do fibrinogens do?

form a temporary clot in the vagina

26

Once beyond the seminal vesicle, it is referred to as what?

ejaculatory duct

27

The ejaculatory ducts are paired structures that empty into the...

prostatic urethra

28

Within the prostate gland in the male, what comes together to join the urethra?

ejaculatory ducts

29

Prostate secretions:

prostatic fluid
-clotting enzyme
-profibrinolysin

30

The clotting enzyme activates what?

the fibrinogen and convert it to fibrin

31

What type of tissue is in the prostate?

connective tissue
glandular tissue
smooth muscle tissue

32

What dissolves the temporary clot?

profibrinolysin

33

What do the bulbourethral glands do?

lubricates pathway through urethra
secretes alkaline mucus that neutralizes acidity along urethra

34

Erection is what kind of innervation?

parasympathetic function
S2, S3, S4

35

Erection is stimulated by what kind of stimuli?
Conveyed via what nerve?

sensory
pudendal

36

Conscious thoughts (cerebral cortex) can either stimulate or inhibit erection center where?

in hypothalamus

37

Ejaculation is what kind of function?

sympathetic function

38

Sympathetic fibers innervate smooth muscle of what?

ductus deferens

39

"..Point and Shoot.."

Point = erection = parasympathetic
Shoot = ejaculation = sympathetic

40

Ejaculation produces what kind of contractions?

peristaltic

41

Peristalsis propels sperm and seminal fluid out of what?

distal end of urethra

42

Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH):

(hypothalamus)
stimulates secretion of Follice Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) from anterior pituitary

43

Hormone regulation in males
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH):

(anterior pituitary)
responsible for stimulating spermatogenesis and testosterone production and secretion

44

Hormone regulation in males
Testosterone:

-stimulates development of male sex organs, as well as secondary sexual characteristics
-participates in feedback loop involving GnRH
-also inhibits secretion of LH

45

Hormone regulation in males
Inhibin:

-secreted by sustentacular cells in response to sperm production
-inhibits secretion of FSH