Flashcards in (final) Lecture 16 (6/6/16) PT. 1 Deck (45):
Sperm production takes place in the...
Each testis contains around how many coiled tubules? What are they called?
~500 coiled tubules
The inner lining of each tubule is lined with germinal tissue, which includes 2 kinds of cells:
sustentacular (sertoli or nurse) cells
-through meiosis, these cells produce haploid sperm cells
-all four resultant cells are viable sperm cells
(sertoli or nurse cells)
-nourish and protect germ cells
-secrete lubricating fluid to aid outward movement of sperm as they exit testis
-also produce AMH (anti-Mullerian hormone)
What is AMH and what does it do?
-produced by sustentacular/nurse cells
-regulates other hormones
The sperm exits the testis via what?
The degeneration of the paramesonephric ducts while a male is developing as a fetus is because of what?
sustentacular cells (which produce AMH)
Spermatogonia divide first by what?
divides into two; one stays in current location and one goes into center of tubule/lumen
After mitosis of the spermatogonia, one stays in current location and one goes to center of lumen. Then how does it divide?
Interstitial endocrinocytes secrete what?
The head of sperm contains nucleus and an organelle called a(n)...
-organelle in the head of sperm
-contains digestive enzymes that helps sperms to penetrate egg (if present)
Seminiferous tubules lead into straight tubules, then into larger set of tubules called...
Rete testis ultimately drains into larger tubules called _____________ which in turn drain into ____________.
Epididymis came from what embryonic structure?
What else is a derivative of the mesonephric duct?
The tail of the epididymis dilates (expands) into _____________.
The ductus deferens passes up spermatic cord and into the body through what canal?
As each duct passes behind (dorsal to) bladder, it has appended to it a gland called the...
Just prior to attachment of the seminal vesicle, the ductus deferens enlarges into a(n)...
Where is the sperm held right before ejaculation?
Fluid from seminal vesicle lubricates path, provides energy-rich nutrients for sperm, and does what else?
secretes are slightly alkaline, so they neutralize slight acidic environment of vagina
-promote uterine contractions to help facilitate sperm movement up uterus into fallopian tubes.
What do fibrinogens do?
form a temporary clot in the vagina
Once beyond the seminal vesicle, it is referred to as what?
The ejaculatory ducts are paired structures that empty into the...
Within the prostate gland in the male, what comes together to join the urethra?
The clotting enzyme activates what?
the fibrinogen and convert it to fibrin
What type of tissue is in the prostate?
smooth muscle tissue
What dissolves the temporary clot?
What do the bulbourethral glands do?
lubricates pathway through urethra
secretes alkaline mucus that neutralizes acidity along urethra
Erection is what kind of innervation?
S2, S3, S4
Erection is stimulated by what kind of stimuli?
Conveyed via what nerve?
Conscious thoughts (cerebral cortex) can either stimulate or inhibit erection center where?
Ejaculation is what kind of function?
Sympathetic fibers innervate smooth muscle of what?
"..Point and Shoot.."
Point = erection = parasympathetic
Shoot = ejaculation = sympathetic
Ejaculation produces what kind of contractions?
Peristalsis propels sperm and seminal fluid out of what?
distal end of urethra
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH):
stimulates secretion of Follice Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) from anterior pituitary
Hormone regulation in males
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH):
responsible for stimulating spermatogenesis and testosterone production and secretion
Hormone regulation in males
-stimulates development of male sex organs, as well as secondary sexual characteristics
-participates in feedback loop involving GnRH
-also inhibits secretion of LH