(final) Lecture 12 (5/18/16) PT. 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in (final) Lecture 12 (5/18/16) PT. 1 Deck (40):
1

What is hyperconcentration? What allows hyperconcentration of substances?

"concentrating the filtrate that we're creating when we're filtering our blood" - Noriega
Countercurrent exchange allows this

2

Definition of countercurrent exchange:

a pair of adjacent channels or tubes containing fluids flowing in opposite directions and having a gradient directed between one channel and the other
*stuff can flow between tubes

3

When the rate of transport from the top tube to the bottom tube is the same as the rate of transport from the bottom tube to the top tube, what is that called?

equilibrium
*no net transfer

4

If the concentration gradient remains the same the entire time those tubes are passing by each other, will it reach equilibrium?

No
*the top tube will continue to be able to transfer into the bottom tube

5

In a warm environment/on a hot day, you want to get rid of excess heat. Are we dealing with countercurrent exchange?

No; we're trying to get rid of heat, not conserve it.

6

In a cold environment/on a cold day, you want to retain heat. Are we dealing with countercurrent exchange?

Yes; we're trying to conserve as much heat as possible

7

What is the smallest functional unit of the kidney?

nephron
*filtration of blood

8

The kidney/renal lobe consists of...

renal pyramid (medulla)
renal cortex
*and a bunch of nephrons

9

True or false:
One collecting duct can collect from multiple nephrons.

true

10

The countercurrent exchange in a nephron is at the...

Loop of Henle

11

There is active transport in only one direction in the kidney. What's being transported and to where?

Salts are being transported to concentrate salts in the urine

12

What makes up the renal corpuscle?

Bowman's (nephron) capsule
Glomerulus

13

What does the glomerulus do?

It is a ball of capillaries that exchanges substances

14

What is the "beginning" of the nephron and also the tube/duct system of the nephron?

Bowman's capsule

15

Where does the filtrate that comes from the renal corpuscle go?

The lumen of Bowman's capsule

16

From Bowman's capsule, where does the filtrate go?

Proximal convoluted tubule

17

After the proximal convoluted tubule, where does the filtrate go?

Loop of Henle

18

Is the Loop of Henle in the cortex or the medulla?

medulla
the filtrate goes from the cortex to the medulla to the cortex

19

After the Loop of Henle, where does the filtrate go?

Distal convoluted tubule

20

What's the initial part of the Loop of Henle? What's the later part?

Descending limb
Ascending limb

21

Through what does the filtrate go when it enters the renal corpuscle?

the afferent arteriole

22

What is the afferent arteriole doing?

bringing blood into the glomerulus

23

The blood goes through the capillaries in the glomerulus and comes out where?

the efferent arteriole

24

The afferent and efferent arterioles make a V with a little "crotch" in the middle. What is in between them?

the distal convoluted tubule

25

Why is it significant that the distal convoluted tubule is in between the afferent and efferent tubules?

There is a collection of cells in that area where the vessel and the tube are next to each other

26

What are the cells called that are in between the distal convoluted tubule and the glomerulus?

juxtaglomerular cells

27

What do the juxtaglomerular cells make up?

the juxtaglomerular apparatus

28

What do the juxtaglomerular cells sense?

pressure

29

What is the significance of the juxtaglomerular cells sensing pressure?

blood is made up of mostly plasma and plasma is mostly water; the cells are sensing the water pressure to see how much water there is in the body
*the higher the blood pressure, the higher the water pressure

30

What solvent is used in the kidney?

water

31

Kidney function:

flitration
water balance regulation

32

The filtration process begins with the...

filtration membrane at the renal corpuscle

33

Capillaries have holes called...

fenestration

34

What initiates concentration of glomerular filtrate?

proximal convoluted tubule

35

75% of _______ is removed by active transport in the proximal convoluted tubule. What follows passively?

sodium
chloride

36

The remaining fluid concentration in the nephron tube is ___________ as that of surrounding interstitial fluid.

about the same

37

Remember...
What do you need for depolarization?

sodium

38

Most of the sodium you're recovering during reabsorption is going into the...

proximal convoluted tubule

39

"Drawing the sodium (positive) back in, the chloride (negative) does what?"

passively comes back in

40

What kind of cells are in the medulla?

mesenchymal