(second midterm) Lecture 9 (5/4/16) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in (second midterm) Lecture 9 (5/4/16) Deck (25):
1

Review:
The aortic arches give rise to..

1: mostly disappears (except for maxillary artery)
2: gone
3: carotid artery
4: arch of the aorta on left
5: gone
6: pulmonary arch (artery to lungs, NOT the lungs themselves)

2

Review:
On the left side, the recurrent laryngeal nerve "hooks" around what?

ligamentum arteriosum

3

While a fetus is in the mom, what are the lungs doing?

small and collapsed
filled with amniotic fluid
not transferring gas

4

There are 2 ways for the blood to bypass the lung:

Foramen ovale
Ductus arteriosus

5

Where is the foramen ovale?

a hole between the right and left atria
allows blood to pass from right side to left side and not ever get pumped to lungs

6

Where is the ductus arteriosus?

it is a connection between the sixth aortic arch on the left side and the arch of the aorta also on the left side.
it joins up with the partially oxygenated blood that is being pumped out of the left ventricle,

7

True or false:
The ductus arteriosus is large.

true;
it is almost the same size as the aorta

8

How does the blood get into the placenta?

via the umbilical artery

9

What is the "old connection" of the umbilical artery?

the distal end of the internal iliac artery

10

Which one of the atria is experiencing the most "back" pressure?

right atrium
*lungs are trying to send it back

11

The umbilical artery usually remains on only one side; usually what side is it?

the left side

12

How does the blood from the placenta come back?

umbilical vein

13

Pathway of blood coming back into fetus into the heart

Umbilical vein
Interal iliac
Common iliac
Inferior vena cava
Right atrium

14

There's another bypass but from the placenta to the upper region of the inferior vena cava. What does it bypass and what is it called?

Ductus venosus
bypasses liver

15

The "best" blood is the "best" because it bypasses the liver (since mom already filtered that blood). When it is entering the heart via the inferior vena cava, what happens when it gets to the heart?

It shoots directly into foramen ovale and into left atrium

16

If things didn't change at birth, what would happen?

1. right blood would continuously spill to the left side via foramen ovale
2. blood of pulmonary arch would miss the lung and go to the aorta, mixing there
3. you would get hypoxia - lack of adequate oxygen in arterial blood
4. lungs would be bypassed continuously, deteriorating quickly

17

In the fetus, foramen ovale is covered by an _____________ that allows blood to pass from R to L atrium, but not in opposite direction

interatrial flap valve

18

How does the ductus arteriosus close and become the ligament arteriosum?

a powerful vasoconstriction

19

What does the umbilical vein become?

the round ligament of the liver (ligamentum teres)

20

The right recurrent branch of vagus nerve hooks around what?

right subclavian artery

21

The foramen ovale fuses with the interatrial wall and becomes what?

fossa ovalis

22

If the foramen ovale stays open, blood mixing occurs and what happens to the baby (according to powerpoint)?

"Blue baby"

23

Fetal hemoglobin is really good at doing what?

binding to oxygen

24

At approximately week 27-30, enzyme function in the fetal liver changes to promote storage of what?

glycogen

25

Why is glycogen stored up?

as a food source in case of temporary starvation between birth and mother's first ability to produce milk for nursing