Flashcards in (second midterm) Lecture 9 (5/4/16) Deck (25):
The aortic arches give rise to..
1: mostly disappears (except for maxillary artery)
3: carotid artery
4: arch of the aorta on left
6: pulmonary arch (artery to lungs, NOT the lungs themselves)
On the left side, the recurrent laryngeal nerve "hooks" around what?
While a fetus is in the mom, what are the lungs doing?
small and collapsed
filled with amniotic fluid
not transferring gas
There are 2 ways for the blood to bypass the lung:
Where is the foramen ovale?
a hole between the right and left atria
allows blood to pass from right side to left side and not ever get pumped to lungs
Where is the ductus arteriosus?
it is a connection between the sixth aortic arch on the left side and the arch of the aorta also on the left side.
it joins up with the partially oxygenated blood that is being pumped out of the left ventricle,
True or false:
The ductus arteriosus is large.
it is almost the same size as the aorta
How does the blood get into the placenta?
via the umbilical artery
What is the "old connection" of the umbilical artery?
the distal end of the internal iliac artery
Which one of the atria is experiencing the most "back" pressure?
*lungs are trying to send it back
The umbilical artery usually remains on only one side; usually what side is it?
the left side
How does the blood from the placenta come back?
Pathway of blood coming back into fetus into the heart
Inferior vena cava
There's another bypass but from the placenta to the upper region of the inferior vena cava. What does it bypass and what is it called?
The "best" blood is the "best" because it bypasses the liver (since mom already filtered that blood). When it is entering the heart via the inferior vena cava, what happens when it gets to the heart?
It shoots directly into foramen ovale and into left atrium
If things didn't change at birth, what would happen?
1. right blood would continuously spill to the left side via foramen ovale
2. blood of pulmonary arch would miss the lung and go to the aorta, mixing there
3. you would get hypoxia - lack of adequate oxygen in arterial blood
4. lungs would be bypassed continuously, deteriorating quickly
In the fetus, foramen ovale is covered by an _____________ that allows blood to pass from R to L atrium, but not in opposite direction
interatrial flap valve
How does the ductus arteriosus close and become the ligament arteriosum?
a powerful vasoconstriction
What does the umbilical vein become?
the round ligament of the liver (ligamentum teres)
The right recurrent branch of vagus nerve hooks around what?
right subclavian artery
The foramen ovale fuses with the interatrial wall and becomes what?
If the foramen ovale stays open, blood mixing occurs and what happens to the baby (according to powerpoint)?
Fetal hemoglobin is really good at doing what?
binding to oxygen
At approximately week 27-30, enzyme function in the fetal liver changes to promote storage of what?