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Anatomic pathology > Skin > Flashcards

Flashcards in Skin Deck (352)
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90

Xanthogranuloma: Constituent cells.

Histiocytes.

Touton giant cells.

Neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes.

91

Xanthogranuloma: Immunohistochemical distinction from Langerhans' cell histiocytosis.

Langerhans' cells express CD1a, S100, and langerin.

92

Reticulohistiocytosis: Clinical forms.

Localized: Limited to skin.

Systemic: Involves skin, heart, bone, joints, lymph nodes.

93

Systemic reticulohistiocytosis: Associations (3).

Hyperlipidemia.

Internal malignancies.

Autoimmune disease.

94

Reticulohistiocytoma: Morphology of defining cell.

Epithelioid histiocyte with abundant, pale-pink, glassy cytoplasm.

95

Granuloma annulare: Typical anatomic sites.

Dorsa of hands and feet, knees, ankles, elbows.

96

Granuloma annulare: Distribution of histiocytes.

Palisaded, interstitial, or a combination of both.

97

Granuloma annulare: Histological distinction from rheumatoid nodule.

Rheumatoid nodule:

- Necrobiosis is more eosinophilic and sometimes fibrinoid; no mucin.
- Subcutaneous location.

98

Granuloma annulare in children.

May be subcutaneous and hence difficult to distinguish from rheumatoid nodule.

99

Rheumatoid nodule: Anatomic sites (2).

PIP joints, MCP joints.

100

Necrobiosis lipoidica: Classic anatomic site.

Shins.

101

Necrobiosis lipoidica: Appearance of necrobiosis.

Basophilic degeneration of collagen.

102

Necrobiosis lipoidica: Relevance to diabetes (2).

Occurs in less than 1% of diabetics.

Occurs at a later age in diabetics than in non-diabetics.

103

Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma:

A. Clinical association.
B. Typical anatomic location.

A. Paraproteinemia.

B. Periorbital skin.

104

Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma: Histology (3).

Foam cells, Touton giant cells, lymphocytes.

Intervening zones of necrobiosis.

Lymphoid follicles sometimes.

105

Lupus pernio:

A. Site of lesions.
B. Clinical significance.

A. Central face.

B. Increased risk of pulmonary sarcoidosis.

106

Löfgren's syndrome: Clinical triad.

Hilar adenopathy, acute polyarthritis, erythema nodosum.

A variant presentation of sarcoidosis.

107

Sarcoidosis: Appearance of granulomas.

Noncaseating; minimal peripheral lymphocytic infiltrate.

108

Sarcoidosis: Appearance of panniculitis.

Lobular pattern; noncaseating granulomas.

109

Foreign substances that can cause sarcoidal granulomas (3).

Silica.

Beryllium.

Zirconium.

110

Inflammatory infiltrate of leprosy:

A. Tuberculoid.
B. Lepromatous.
C. Borderline.

A. Granulomas.

B. Foam cells; few lymphocytes.

C. Foam cells and epithelioid histiocytes in poorly formed granulomas; many lymphocytes.

111

Leprosy: Where to find organisms.

Abundant in lepromatous leprosy; few in tuberculoid leprosy.

Found in histiocytes, nerves, arrectores pilorum.

112

Histoid leprosy.

Histologically resembles a histiocytoma but is full of acid-fast bacilli.

113

Lupus vulgaris: Etiologies (2).

Hematogenous spread to skin from reactivated pulmonary focus of TB.

Lymphatic spread to skin from cervical lymph nodes.

114

Lupus vulgaris:

A. Anatomic site.
B. Clinical course.

A. Central face.

B. Peripheral extension with atrophy and occasional ulceration.

115

Lupus vulgaris: Histology (3).

Tuberculoid granulomas with little or no caseation.

In older lesions, fibrosis replaces granulomas.

Epidermis may be atrophic, ulcerated, or hyperplastic.

116

Lupus vulgaris: Demonstration of bacilli.

Special stains rarely help.

PCR is better.

117

Lupus vulgaris: Complication.

Development of SCC or BCC.

118

Deep mycoses: Typical histology.

Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia with extensive dermal suppurative and granulomatous inflammation.

119

Deep mycoses: Appearance of panniculitis.

Lobular; suppurative and granulomatous.