Flashcards in Small Group: Anemia 1 & 2 Deck (16)
A test for fecal occult stool.
What does the mnemonic OLDCART stand for?
Onset, Location, Duration, Characteristics, Aggregate, Relieve, Treatment
Tarry stool, suggestive of occult blood, is called _______.
What is the order to present patients?
Identification, chief complaint, past medical history, past surgical history, medications, family history, social history, physical exam, labs, differential diagnosis, and plan
What are the microcytic anemias?
Iron deficiency, inflammatory disease, lead poisoning, and thalassemias
Ferritin helps differentiate _________.
anemia due to iron deficiency and anemia due to inflammatory disease (ID would have normal to high)
What are lab findings typical for vitamin B12 deficiency?
High methylmalonic acid, high homocysteine, high RDW, normal to high MCV, and hypersegmented neutrophils
B12 deficiency can be treated with __________.
B12 injections and large supplementation of B12 (because of mass effect)
Vitamin B12 and folate are involved in ______.
DNA synthesis; homocysteine is sooner in the pathway, so homocysteine will be elevated in both folate and B12 deficiency
What test is done to rule out spherocytosis?
Induced osmotic fragility (patients with decreased osmotic fragility will be left-shifted)
What labs would you find in spherocytosis?
Increased RDW, LDH, and retic count; decreased Hct/Hgb/RBC
What treats spherocytosis?
Folic acid supplementation and splenectomy (once the child has been immunized)
EBV and mono sometimes lead to _______.
What would you expect to see in hemolytic anemia?
Recent illness, spherocytes, increased RDW/retic/MCV, decreased RBC/Hct/Hgb,
How could you tell if a patient had warm or cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia?
Warm and cold both test positive in the indirect Coombs test, but warm will also have a positive direct antibody test (for IgG)