 # Strategy & Math Flashcards Preview

## ALTIUS > Strategy & Math > Flashcards

Flashcards in Strategy & Math Deck (174):
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## Where on a mass/object is its "Center of Gravity?"

### is at the center of the mass/object 22

## Where is the "Center of buoyancy?"

### at center of mass of the FLUID displaced by the submerged object 23

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## Vol of sphere formula

### Vsphere=4/3 πr3 44

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## Surface Area of a Sphere  Formula=?

### SAsphere= 4πr2 72

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## Converting from DEGREES to RADIANS π radians=? 2π radians=? How many radians are in ONE CIRCLE? ∴, if something is turning at 12 rad/sec, it is making approximately ___ revolutions/sec

### π radians=180° 2π radians=360° There are approximately 6 radians in ONE CIRCLE ∴, if something is rotating at 12 rad/sec, it is making 2 revolutions/ sec 75

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## Linear & Non-Linear Graphs What does a graph look like for: y=x 78

## Linear & Non-Linear Graphs What does a graph look like for: y = 1/x 79

## Linear & Non-Linear Graphs What does a graph look like for: y=x2 80

## Linear & Non-Linear Graphs What does a graph look like for: y = |x|(Absolute Value) 81

## Linear & Non-Linear Graphs What does a graph look like for: y = x3(Cubic) 82

## Linear & Non-Linear Graphs What does a graph look like for: y = √x 83

## Linear & Non-Linear Graphs What does a graph look like for: y= 3√x(Cube Root) 84

## Linear & Non-Linear Graphs What does a graph look like for: y = ln x(Logarithmic)How does it look different than y= logx? 85

## Linear & Non-Linear Graphs What does a graph look like for: y = sinx 86

## Linear & Non-Linear Graphs What does a graph look like for: y = cosx 87

## Linear & Non-Linear Graphs What does a graph look like for: y = ax (Exponential) 88

## Linear & Non-Linear Graphs What does a graph look like for: y = 1/x(Reciprocal) 89

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## Linear & Non-Linear GraphsWhat does a graph look like for:y = tan x 91

## Graphs used as Answer Choices If a variable is changing exponentially, will be linear  or non-linear on: a semi-log graph? a log-log graph?

### The log of an exponential function becomes linear, so exponential functions graphed on semi-log axes end up being linear ​...AND a linear function would be non-linear If the exponential function is graphed on log-log axes, the function will be non-linearThe table below may be helpful The semilog graph described is for a linear X-axis and a logarithmic Y-axis (log-lin type not lin-log) 92

## Graphs used as Answer Choices Describe: a semi-log graph

### A semi-log graph has a logarithmic scale on one axis, but a linear scale on the other axis 93

## Graphs used as Answer Choices Describe:  a log-log graph

### A log-log graph has a logarithmic scale on BOTH axes 94

## Manipulating Equationsay=vx2/cq How are a and y related to each other?

### inversely 95

## Manipulating Equationsay=vx2/cqHow are x and q related to each other?

### directly 96

## Manipulating Equationsay=vx2/cqHow are a and q related to each other?

### directly 97

## Manipulating Equationsay=vx2/cqHow are a and c related to each other?

### inversely 98

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## Medical Ethics Describe (in general) "Nonmaleficence" One important aspect of this is ending ​a study because of...? 107

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## Observational Research Study Types Describe a "Cohort Study" Cohort Studies usually employ _______s to demonstrate a ______ Give an example  Hint: A "cohort" is an ancient Roman military unit, comprising six centuries, equal to one tenth of a legionTHINK: Cohort = GROUP 110

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## Observational Research Study Types Describe a "Case-Control Study" By design, a Case-Control Study is always ________ Give an example 112

## Observational Research Study Types What are some Pros & Cons of: Cross-Sectional Studies 113

## Observational Research Study Types What are some Pros & Cons of: COHORT Studies 114

## Observational Research Study Types What are some Pros & Cons of: Case-Control Studies Also:What kind of outcome are these studies useful for?

### Useful for RARE outcomes 115

## Observational Research Study Types Differentiate b/t: Prospective & Retrospective Cohort Studies What's going on wrt the Exposure & Outcome? 116

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## Evaluating Research Sources of Experimental Bias or Error Define "Specific Real Area Bias" Give an example Will having a specific location for a study always mean this type of bias will exist?  Give an example why/why not 123

## Evaluating Research Sources of Experimental Bias or Error Define "Self-Selection Bias" What type of research shows SIGNIFICANT self-selection bias? Give an example of SSB 124

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## Research Design & Execution Measurement Compare Accuracy vs. Precision

### Accuracy is a measure of the degree to which a value represents the true or correct value Precision is a measure of the degree to which repeatedly measured values show the same or reproducible values The greater the range or scatter of measurements, the less precision 139

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## Correlation vs. Causation Linear Regression Analysis  Correlation Coefficient, r2 Describe how the correlation coefficient relates to SCATTER PLOTS, aka Linear Regression Analysis (shown below) If the data points are CLOSER, as a whole, to the TREND LINE: Will you have a higher/lower r2 value? 145

## Correlation vs. Causation Linear Regression Analysis  Correlation Coefficient, r2 Correlation coefficients vary from __ to __ an r2 value of ___ would be a PERFECT correlation The correlation coefficient is said to explain the amount of variance in __ ACCOUNTED FOR by __ 146

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## Statistics Compare Mean, Median, & Mode Also, define Range

### MEAN= the average value MEDIAN = the middle of the data MODE= the most frequently occurring data point RANGE= the minimum data point ⇒maximum data point 168

## Statistics Define STANDARD DEVIATION (SD)  What does a SMALL SD indicate? What does a LARGE SD indicate?

### STANDARD DEVIATION (SD) = how tightly associated the data are TO THE MEAN A small SD indicates: a narrow set of data for which most values are close to the meanA large SD indicates:a greater spread, or wider distribution,of the data around the mean 169

## Standard Deviation (SD) Define "Normal Distribution"  1 SD=__% of the population 2 SD=__% of the population 3 SD=__% of the population

### Normal Distribution=Hypothetical perfect BELL-SHAPED curve for which the following is true:   1 SD = 68% of the population 2 SD = 95% of the population 3 SD = 99% of the population 170

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## Hypothesis Testing t-test or z-test What is the t-test or z-test (once calculated) COMPARED to?  What does this comparison give us?

### t-Test or z-Test ⇒p valueThe “test statistic” (either a t-value or a z-value) is calculated This result is COMPARED to: a TABLE of t-values or z-values The table gives us:the SIGNIFICANCE LEVEL, "α," associated with that test statistic 173

## Hypothesis Testing t-test or z-test For a z-test, "n" (sample size) must be GREATER THAN what number?  Once this criteria is met, what can we assume about the distribution?  When would we have to use a t-test? ​What does THIS mean wrt its distribution?

### z-test For a z-test, n>30 ​This will mean it has a NORMAL (BELL-SHAPED) DISTRIBUTION We'd use a t-test when our sample size is SMALL ​This will mean our graph will NOT be normally distributed (only approximately) 174