Nur 30 Pharmacology > SUPER MEGA STUDY GUIDE > Flashcards

Flashcards in SUPER MEGA STUDY GUIDE Deck (31):

Losartan (I)

Angiotensin II - receptor blocker that is for the treatment of...

1. HTN alone or in combination therapy.
2. Diabetic nephropathy with an elevated serum creatinine and proteinuria in PT with type 2 diabetes and HTN.


Losartan (A)

Selectively blocks the binding of AT-II to specific tissue receptors found in the vascular smooth muscle and adrenal glands.

Blocks the vasoconstriction and release of aldosterone associated with the renin-angiotensin-system.

CI: Women use condoms pls.


Diltiazem (I - A)

Antihypertensive agent.

Calcium Channel Blocker

I: HTN in the extended release form.

A: Inhibits the movement of calcium ions across the membranes of cardiac and arterial muscle cells, depressing the impulse and leading to slowed conduction, decreasing myocardial contractility, and dilation of arterioles, lowing BP and lowering myocardial oxygen consumption.


Metoprolol (I)

Beta Blocker

Treatment of...

1. Stable angina pectoris
2. Prevention of reinfarction in MI pt's
3. stable, symptomatic HF
4. HTN


Metoprolol (A)

Competitively blocks beta receptors in the heart and kidneys, decreasing the influence of the sympathetic nervous system on these tissues and the excitability of the heart; decreases cardiac output which results in a lowered blood pressure and decreased cardiac workload.


Diltiazem (I)


Indications: Treatment of...

1. Prinzmetal angina
2. Effort-associated angina
3. Chronic stable angina
4. Essential HTN
5. Paroxysmal SVT


Diltiazem (A)


Inhibits the movement of Ca across the membranes of myocardial and arterial muscle cells, altering action potential and blocking muscle cell contraction, which depresses myocardial contractility.
Dilates arteries, causing fall in BP and decrease in venous return; workload of heart; oxygen consumption; relieves vasospasm of coronary artery, increasing blood flow to the muscle cells (prinzmetal angina)


Heparin (I)


Prevention and treatment of venous thrombosis and pulmonary emboli; treatment of atrial fibrillation with embolization; diagnosis and treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation; prevention of clotting in blood samples and heparin lock sets.


Heparin (A)

Inhibits thrombus and clot production by blocking the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin and fibrinogen to fibrin

antagonist: protamine
check PTT


Warfarin (Coumadin)

~Stronger Heparin~

Treatment of patients with AF, artificial heart valves, or valvular damage that makes PT susceptible to thrombus and embolus formation;
prevention and treatment of VTE, pulmonary embolus, and systemic emboli after MI

antagonist: vit. K
check: PT/INR


Aspirin (I - A)

Antiplatelet Agent

Reduction of risk of recurrent transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or strokes in men with history of TIA due to fibrin or platelet emboli ; reduction of death or nonfatal MI in patients with a history of infarction or unstable angina; MI prophylaxis; also used for its inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects.

A: Inhibits platelet aggregation by inhibiting platelet synthesis of thromboxane A2


Digoxin (I)

Cardioglycoside for the treatment of...

1. HF
2. Atrial Fibrillation


Digoxin (A)

Increases intracellular Ca+ and allows more Ca to enter the myocardial cell during depolarization causing a positive inotropic effect.

Increased Renal perfusion with a diuretic effect and decreased renin release, a negative chronotropic effect (slower HR), slowed conduction through the AV node.


Metformin (I)

Antidiabetic Agent

Adj. to diet and exercise for the treatment of type 2 diabetics older than 10 years of age;
XR form for PT older than 17;
polycystic ovary syndrome


Metformin (A)

May increase the peripheral use of glucose,
increase production of insulin, decrease hepatic glucose production, and alter intestinal absorption of glucose


Diltiazem (I - A)

(Class IV Antiarrhythmic Agent)

Ca Channel Blocker

Indications: Treatment of...

1. Paraoxysmal SVT
2. A. Fib
3. Atrial flutter

A: Blocks movement of Ca across the cell membrane, depressing the generation of action potentials slowing conduction of AV node.


Propanolol (I)

Beta Blocker (Class II AA Agent)

Indications: Treatment of...

1. Cardiac arrhythmias
2. Especially SVT
3. Treatment of ventricular tachycardia induced by digitalis or catecholamines.


Propanolol (A)

1. Competitively blocks beta-adrenergic receptors in the heart and kidney, has a membrane-stabilizing effect, and decreases the influence of the sympathetic nervous system.

Don't mix with insulin, hypoglycemia happens.



I: Treatment of erectile dysfunction in the presence of sexual stimulation, treatment of pulmonary artery hypertension.

A: Inhibits phosphodiesterase type 5 receptors, leading to a release of nitrous oxide, which activates cyclic guanosine monophosphate to cause a prolonged smooth muscle relaxation, allowing the flow of blood into the corpus cavernosum and facilitating erection.


Prednisone (I)


Replacement therapy in adrenal cortical insufficiency
short term management of various inflammatory and allergic disorders
hypercalcemia ass. with cancer
hematological disorders
they give the body a chance to heal from the effects of inflammation


Prednisone (A)

Enters target cells and binds to intracellular corticosteroid receptors, initiating many complex reactions responsible for its antinflammatory and immunosuppressive effects.


Hyper vs. Hypo Thyroidism

Hypothyroidism is a lack of sufficient levels of thyroid hormones to maintain normal metabolism.

Hyperthyroidism occurs when excessive amount of thyroid hormones are produced and released into circulation.


Hypo vs. Hyper Glycemic

Hyper: high blood sugar
symptoms: fatigue, lethargy, irritation, glycosuria, polyphagia, itchyskin. Fruity breath, sloow deep respirations.

Hypo: blood flucose


NSAIDS vs. Aspirin vs. Acetaminophen

NSAIDS - For arthritic pain
Aspirin - Prevent strokes and MI
Aceta - Symptoms of Flu and Cold


Immune Suppressants vs Interleukins vs. Interferons

Immune Suppressants - Cyclosporine: organ transplants

Interferons: substances released by human cells that have been invaded by viruses. They prevent virus particles from replicating inside the cells
(interferon alfa 2-b)

Interleukins: communicate between lymphocytes which stimulate cellular immunity and inhibit tumor growth. Aldesleukin.



Powerful antibiotics used to treat serious infections caused by gram negative aerobic baicilli.


Treats serious infections by inhibiting protein synthesis in susceptible strains, disrupting functional integrity of the cell membrane and causing cell death.



Treatment or oropharyngeal, esophageal, and vaginal candidiasis; cryptococcal meningitis;systemic fungal infections; prophylaxis to decrease the incidence of candidiasis in bone marrow transplant.

Binds to sterols in the fungal cell membrane, changing membrane permeability ; fungicidal or fungistatic, depending on the concentration of drug and the organism.


Adrenal Insufficiency

doesnt produce enough ACTH
adrenal glands are not able to respond ACTH
adrenal gland is damaged
secondary to surgical removal of the gland
prolong use of corticosteroid

SIGNS: Physiological exhaustion
Fluid shift
Shock and even death.

TREATMENT: massive infusion of replacement steroids



I: Treatment of whipworm, pinworm, hookworm
A: Irreversibly blocks glucose uptake depleting glycogen stores needed for survival. den dey die



Androgrens- Testosterone
Glucocorticoids -
Mineralcorticoids - Fludrocortisone


Flagyl is another antibiotic. Go to my other decks for the newer cards, kbye.