What does the name Hebe mean?
How did Hesiod learn how to sing?
The muses inspired him with a divine voice... this gives Hesiod authority to sing his song
Who competed for the patronage of Athens? Who won?
Athena and Poseidon - Poseidon gave a spring of water, but lost because it was salty. Athena gave an olive tree.
What does the name "Aphrodite" mean?
Sprung from the foam. She was born from Ouranos' genitals which made foam in the sea
What generation are the Titans?
What does Hephaistos do as his job?
He makes things for the gods, he is a worker. The rest of the gods have aristocratic functions.
What is thrown up first by Kronos?
Who are the offspring of Zeus and Eurynome?
Who were the Giants born from?
Ouranos' genital blood
Who did Gaia produce asexually?
Ouranos (night, lying flat on top of her), the mountains, and the ocean
Before there were any gods, what was there?
Just chaos/chasm = meaning empty space in this context
Who did Hera give birth to asexually?
Hephaistos, the lame god. Ugly and deformed. Significant because Hera tried to outsmart Zeus but it didn't work.
How did Rheia trick Kronos and save Zeus?
She wraps a rock in swaddling clothes after Zeus is born and hidden on Crete. The stone is swallowed by Kronos in Zeus' place
What is the significance of Zeus swallowing Athena?
He is taking female intelligence inside of him... no longer just strength
Who was Herakles the son of?
Zeus and Alkmene
How many times did Hesiod invoke the muses?
Where was Zeus raised?
On Crete in a cave
Who is the offspring of Metis and Zeus?
Athena. Zeus swallowed Metis and gave birth to Athena out of his head. She has cunning intelligence. Male outsmarts female for the first time
What was the Titanomacy, what happened?
The battle with Zeus/Olympians and the Titans. The hundred handed ones helped. Zeus imprisoned them in Tartaros.
What does Ouranos do to prevent himself from being overthrown by one of his offspring?
He shoves them all in his body
Who did Zeus free first as he began establishing his rule?
The 3 hundred handed ones and the 3 cyclopes, imprisoned in Gaia by Ouranos
Why was the stone known as the omphalos?
Because omphalos means "centre", the stone at Delphi became the centre/hub of the universe
What is a cosmogony?
A birth of world-order
Who helped Zeus give birth to Athena?
Who is the offspring of Zeus and Leto?
Twins Apollo and Artemis
Who becomes subordinate to Aphrodite upon her birth?
Eros - the two of them become lovers
Who are the offspring of Gaia and Ouranos?
The 12 Titans, the 3 cyclopes, and the 3 hundred handed ones
Which 3 gods were there after chasm?
Gaia (earth), Tartarus (underworld depths), and Eros (desire - gives an explanation for creation of other things)
What generation are the Olympians? (Hestia, Hera, Hades, Poseidon, Demeter, Zeus)
Third generation, but first generation Olympians
In oral epic song, what is the meter?
Diactylic hexameter, with 6 dactyls, long short short in each line
What happened to the Zeus stone after Kronos threw it up?
It was placed at Pytho/Delphi, known as the omphalos
How does Kronos try to suppress being overthrown by his children?
He swallows them (he swallows Hestia first)
What type of tradition does Hesiod's theogony reflect?
Oral epic tradition
Who was born from the castration of Ouranos? (3)
1. Furies (blood) 2. Giants (blood) 3. Aphrodite (genitals)
Who is the offspring of Zeus and Maia?
Who makes Zeus' lightning bolts? Why?
The cyclopes, because Zeus rescued them from inside Gaia
Who are the children of Kronos and Rheia?
1. Hestia (first-born) 2. Hera 3. Demeter 4. Poseidon 5. Hades 6. Zeus (last-born)
Where is Hesiod from?
Boeotia, which means cowland
Who is the first and last born?
Hestia - first to be born, last to be thrown up by Kronos
What is the symbolism behind Aphrodite being born of male genitals?
It relates females to violence, right off the bat
What was the first act of violence ever?
Kronos castrating Ouranos
Who are the children of Hera (sister) and Zeus?
Ares, Hebe, Eileithyia
What did the Ancient Greeks think about the universe?
Flat like a dinner plate, where everyone lives is a reflection of their status
What is the trick that Gaia plays on Ouranos?
She creates flint and uses it to make a sickle, Kronos, the youngest Titan also hates his father. Gaia gives him the sickle. When Ouranos comes to make love with Gaia, Kronos castrates his father and flings them.
Who marries Hebe?
Herakles - becomes immortal through apotheosis, wins "YOUTH" which is what Hebe means.
Who are the muses?
Daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyn (authority + memory), Zeus mingled in love for 9 nights, producing 9 muses --> goddesses
What influence was on the Theogony?
A Near-Eastern influence
Which god do the muses favour?
What natural disaster was Typhoios said to have caused?
The eruption of Mt. Etna in Sicily
How does Zeus trick his father?
He tricks him into vomiting up the stone and all of Zeus' siblings
What is an epithet an example of?
A formulaic expression
What does theogony mean?
Birth of the gods
Who were the Furies born from?
Ouranos' genital blood
Who are the 4th generation Olympians?
1. Athena 2. Persephone 3. Apollo 4. Artemis 5. Ares 6. Hephaistos 7. Hermes 8. Dionysus
Who is Kronos' lover?
Who are the offspring of Zeus and Themis?
The seasons, justice, fates
Where do the muses live?
What was the Typhonomachy, what happened?
The battle with Typhoios, the worst god. Dragon heads - Zeus defeated him by shooting lightning bolts at his head.
Who is the offspring of Zeus and Demeter?
Who is the offspring of Zeus and Semele? Why was it significant?
Dionysus - Semele was a mortal, who gave birth to the divine Dionysus. Dionysus was actually born from the thigh of Zeus
Who is the theogony an elaborate hymn to?
What did Zeus do to establish his rule?
1. Free cyclopes and hundred handed ones from Gaia (uncles) 2. Punished Prometheus and glorified Herakles 3. Titanomachy 4. Typhonomachy 5. Distributes roles and privileges
What does Metis mean?
Who wrote works and days, and the theogony? When?
Hesiod - 700 BCE
What instrument do the muses play?