What time period was the Homeric Hymn to Demeter written? Who wrote it?
Archaic, unknown author
Who informs Hephaestus that Aphrodite cheated on him?
What does Zeus do to get back at Aphrodite for making him fall in love with mortals?
He makes her fall in love with a mortal (Anchises)!. Role reversal.
Who was Anchises?
A mortal, Trojan hero
What happens in the story of Ares and Aphrodite?
Ares seduced Aphrodite, shaming the bed of Hephaestus. Helios informs him. Hephaestus is angry and "wants his money back". He places a fine netting of gold on the bed like a cobweb. He then pretends he had to go to Thrace. They go to make love in his bed and they are caught. Hephaestus and all of the other gods are laughing.
How are beds a theme in the Odyssey?
- Penelope identifies Odysseus by the bed - Hephaestus lays a trap over the bed of Aphrodite and Ares
What important connection does the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite create?
A connection between Aphrodite and Rome. Anchises is fated to be saved at Troy, by his son Aeneas.
Is Zeus immune to Aphrodite?
No. Aphrodite gets Zeus in trouble, making him desire mortals.
What are some of the epithets for Aphrodite?
Laughter-loving Cyprian Golden
Who was Aphrodite married to? Who did she have an affair with? Where was this story detailed?
Aphrodite was married to Hephaestus, but has an affair with Ares. Found in the Odyssey
What does Demeter do to Demophoon?
She breast feeds him ambrosia - the food of the gods, and pts him in the fire every night to make him immortal, she is replacing her own child
How do Athena and Ares differ in the ways that they are gods of war?
Athena: a war goddess for the polis, she preserves cities. Military strategy. Ares: brings war and harmful bloodlust
Who sang the story of Ares and Aphrodite's affair? When?
Demodocus to entertain the Phaeacians in the Odyssey, with Odysseus listening.
Who are the parents of Ares?
Hera and Zeus
How does Hades get to keep Persephone for a third of the year?
He gives Persephone a pomegranate seed and it is put inside her body. She has to go there for a third of every year, but she can spend the rest of the time with Demeter.
What does Aphrodite represent?
The power of attraction, pleasure, and sexual desire. She was the most beautiful and attractive of the goddesses. She also represents deceit and violence though.
Who are the children of Ares and Aphrodite?
Eros, but not in Hesiod. Harmonia, Panic and Fear
Three gods are immune to sexual desire. What do they care about?
1. Athena: cares about war and crafts 2. Artemis: cares about hunting, dancing, and the woods 3. Hestia: first and last born, asked Zeus to allow her to remain a virgin forever at the centre of the household (hearthfire)
When does Persephone become a nymph/gyne?
After putting a pomegranate seed inside her body.
What is Ares the god of?
War and bloodlust
How are Io and Persephone similar and different?
Different: Persephone was a goddess, Io a mortal -Both are virgins, at the age of marriage -Found in non-domestic liminal spaces (meadows) -Radical transformation (cow, bride of death) -Both are unwilling and unknowing -Both suffer greatly -Both benefit humanity and enjoy great honour
How does Demeter react to finding out from Helios that Hades abducted Persephone?
She is SO ANGRY with Zeus. She withdraws, and goes to live among human beings. She WITHDRAWS from the order of the gods.
Who is older? Zeus or Aphrodite?
Aphrodite, yet she is still considered to be Zeus' daughter.
What happens when Anchises and Aphrodite meet?
He is stunned by the beauty of her. He immediately falls in love. Addresses her like a goddess, "I'll build you an altar and give you many sacrifices". He requests that if they sleep together, she let him live long and prosperous.
How is Aphrodite like Pandora in the HHTA?
She adorns herself in gold before going to see Anchises. She is disguised as a MORTAL VIRGIN, but still beautiful.
How can the stories of Io and Persephone be compared to Aphrodite and Anchises?
Aphrodite tells a lie about her identity and tricks Anchises into sleeping with her. This is like what Hades and Zeus did to Persephone and Io.
How does Zeus still reign supreme in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter?
Persephone still has to stay in the underworld for a third of every year.
What Trojans does Aphrodite mention to Anchises when she's trying to convince him that the Gods favour the Trojans?
Ganymede Tithonus Eos
What lie does Aphrodite tell Anchises?
That her family is from a nearby town, and that she has already heard all about him. She says she was abducted by Hermes.
Who are the royal King and Queen at Eleusis? How does Demeter "help" them?
Keleos and Metaneira - Demeter offers to be the nurse of their son Demophoon
Where was Eleusis?
Right outside of Athens. (20 km away)
What is it called when Aphrodite reveals herself to Anchises?
Epiphany - Demeter has one
What occurs when Metaneira reveals what Demeter has been doing to Demophoon?
Demeter's EPIPHANY. She reveals herself to the Eleusian's as a god. The house flooded with radiance, and she gave instructions for a temple to be built.
When Demeter was travelling among mortals, what place does she come about? Who does she meet here?
Eleusis. She is at a well, disguised as an old woman, to 4 girls of marriage age. She says she was abducted by pirates - the story that she wishes she could say about her daughter. She says that if the girls help her, she will give them all husbands. This is how she is let into the royal house at Eleusis.
Why is the story of Ares and Aphrodite a comic relief in the Odyssey?
Because the stories of Clytemnestra and Agamemnon are told, and Penelope and Odysseus
When does Aphrodite reveal herself to Achises? How does he react? How does Aphrodite comfort him?
After they have sex. The entire hut it filled with light. Enchases is terrified. He does not want to be left a "palsied man". He is terrified that he will lose his strength. Aphrodite says that the Olympians favour the Trojan family (Ex. Ganymede was made immortal). She tells him that he will have a mortal son, Aeneas.
Who sees Persephone's abduction? How do they help when Demeter is looking for her?
Helios and Hecate both witness. Helios is the "eye in the sky". Demeter is in pieces. She doesn't eat for 9 days, she refuses to bathe. She finally speaks with Helios, and he CONGRATULATES her on Demeter's marriage to Hades, he tells her everything.
How is Persephone a bride of death?
She is a mythical example of female experience of marriage as death. Structural parallels between funerary and wedding rituals. Major TRANSITIONAL rituals. Loss and change of status.
Do the Greeks like Ares? How do the Romans feel about him (Mars)?
No, he is hated by them. The Romans, however respect him more as Mars.
What are some features of the homeric hymn to demeter?
-Persephone's marriage -Power of female fertility -Cycle of seasons -Eleusinan mysteries -Etiology
In Hesiod, how was Aphrodite born? How about in Homer?
Hesiod: born of Ouranos' castrated genitals Homer: daughter of Zeus and Dione (a Titan)
Who makes the compromise to allow Persephone back to Olympus for 2/3 of every year? What was this dependent on?
Rheia. A link between grandmother, mother and daughter. This meant that Demeter had to return the fertility to the earth.
What will the future of Aeneas be? How will he be brought up? What can't Anchises say?
Aeneas will be nursed and raised by mountain nymphs. Anchises will receive Aeneas once he has grown into a boy. When Anchises meets Aeneas, he cannot reveal to him that Aphrodite is his mother, or Zeus will punish them. Aeneas will flee Troy when it is destroyed by the Greeks in the war, carrying Anchises on his shoulders to found Rome, Italy. Venus will care for this new nation.
Does Demophoon actually become immortal?
No. Metaneira spies on Demeter, and ruins the secrete rite. Demeter calls her a fool and throws Demophoon on the ground.
Who is often the offspring of Aphrodite and Ares (but not in Hesiod)?
Where does Hades abduct Persephone from?
She was in a meadow (LIMINAL SPACE), picking flowers, when she saw a flower "wondrous and bright". She picked the flower, bait, and Hades came and took her away.
What does "the slow catches the swift" refer to?
Hephaestus the lame god, trapping Ares
Who is the patron god of Rome? Who is the centre of Rome as the hearthfire?
1. Aphrodite 2. Hestia
What happens once Ares and Aphrodite are caught in Hephaestus' trap?
All of the gods come and watch. Hermes says he would be tied up three times if he could sleep with Aphrodite. Poseidon finally lets them go. He says that he'll pay Hephaestus back the compensation if he has to.
Who is "hated by gods and men"?
What is Demeter threatening to Zeus with Demophoon?
That she will make a divine son who will overthrow Zeus if he doesn't let her have Persephone back
Who did the poems of Sappho (7th century BCE) honour?
How does Hermes try to convince Demeter to stop being angry with the gods?
He says as a wife, Persephone would gain many honours. Hermes relents and Persephone gets to see Demeter.
Who is the father of Persephone? What is the significance of this in her marriage?
Zeus is. By exchanging Persephone, giving her to Hades, there is an alliance between the sky and the underworld.
Where was the story of Aphrodite and Anchises detailed?
Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite
After Demeter's epiphany, what does she do? What gods are involved in response?
She withholds seeds and agricultural fertility. Humans begin to starve. She is similar to Prometheus in how defiant she is. The gods get upset. Zeus sends Iris, but it doesn't work. He then sends Hermes.
Where was the story of Aphrodite and Ares detailed?
How were the Eleusinian Mysteries celebrated on an annual basis?
An annual festival that involved a procession with the initiates. They would proceed under a bridge, where the people would yell insults at them. It was comedic. Obscenity. All night feasting. You had to be initiated into the Eleusinian Mysteries, secret rites. It involved purification, fasting, being stuck in a dark place (confusion), with a sudden flash of light.
What is Persephone's Roman name?
Why did people want to be a part of the Eleusinian Mysteries?
Because it was thought to initiate a blessed existence after death.
Who accompanies Persephone as she crosses into the underworld?
Hermes - the psychopomp
Who finally makes Hephaestus release Ares and Aphrodite?
What is the Homeric Hymn to Demeter and etiological story of?
1. Cycle of seasons (Persephone is away 3 months of the year) 2. Eleusinian mysteries