Who is often seen with a mallet? (HT)
What is the "worst age"?
The Iron Age
What occurred in the Bronze age?
-Monstrous, heavy, war-loving men -Ate no food -Strong and wild -Everything made of bronze (houses, tools, etc.) -Killed each other off -Forgotten
Is there a jar in Theogony?
What is Pandora's nature? (HT)
She is beautiful on the outside but evil on the inside, a "necessary" evil.
Who enjoyed an afterlife in the Isles of the Blest?
The Age of Heroes
Who was Works and Days by Hesiod addressed to?
His brother Perses (also from Boetia)
What hierarchy was established at Mekone? (HT)
1. Gods are at the top - they only consume nectar and ambrosia. They receive the SMOKE of human sacrifice 2. Humans in the middle - they consume the COOKED meat of the animals at the communal sacrificial feast 3. Animals are at the bottom - they consume RAW food, and they are the sacrificial victims, eaten by humans
When was the first time a god was mentioned as a baby?
In Theogony, when Zeus was born and raised in the cave on Crete
Where is the story of Deucalion and Pyrrha detailed?
In Ovid, Metamorphoses, much later than Hesiod (Roman, 1st century CE)
What was Atlas' punishment?
He had to hold up the whole entire sky
How was an animal prepared at a sacrificial feast? (HT)
A perfect animal was selected, the throat was cut, and it was slain on the alter with the blood pouring down. The animal was then cut into small pieces. The bones were wrapped in fat and burned on the altar so that the smoke rose up to the gods. The meat was cooked on spits like souvlaki and then divided among the humans that were present.
How was a sacrificial feast important for the humans present? (HT)
It allowed for them to share a bond, and form a community.
Why does Zeus allow Herakles to rescue Prometheus?
Because Herakles is his son, and he wants to be proud of him/show off how great of a hero he created
When is the bee hive analogy used? (HT)
How does Zeus punish the mortals for Prometheus' trick on him? (HT)
He withholds fire from the mortals, because they benefitted from the tripe covered fat that Prometheus served them.
What is Eris? What are the 2 different kinds? (WD)
Eris is strife. 1. Good strife: competition and rivalry, which increases wealth and accomplishment. The kind that motivates even lazy folks to do their work. 2. Bad kind: wars, quarrels, lawsuits. Consumes wealth and detracts from accomplishment.
What is Prometheus' second offence against Zeus that leads to his punishment? (HT)
He steals the fire that Zeus withdrew from the humans and hides it in a fennel stalk and gives it back to humans
What does the name Pandora mean?
"All gifts" - In WAD Pandora receives gifts from all of the gods.
In Theogony, Pandora can be compared to Zeus' meal or the fennel stalk. In WAD. what can Pandora be compared to?
To her jar, the pithos, which was made of clay and contained
Who made Pandora from clay in Theogony? Who did in Works and Days?
Theogony: hephaistos Works and Days: hephaistos (in HT Hephaistos just made the golden crown for Pandora)
Which age had humans who became spirits who roamed the land, dispensing justice?
Does Epimetheus take Pandora as his bride in HT?
No, only in WAD
When was destruction predicted for the Iron age?
-Children are born w grey hair -father fight sons, hosts with guests, brother w brother -children dishonour parents -no justice -war -oath-breaking, violence, envy -Shame and Nemesis leave he earth
What is in Pandora's jar? What is left in it?
10,000 diseases, the only thing that remains in it is hope. She releases it over the humans, and this is why humans must work.
When was the first sacrificial feast? (HT)
The feast at Mekone
How does Hephaistos create Pandora in Theogony? (HT)
Zeus creates a shy virgin from clay. Athena dresses her in beautiful clothes with flower in her hairs and a silver dress. Hephaistos makes Pandoras beautiful golden crown with sea monsters and fabulous beasts all over it.
Theogony is a divine succession from chaos to order... what is Hesiod's Works and Days about?
It is a pessimistic poem on the decline of the human race.
Who were Pyrrha and Deucalion to each other?
Cousins and lovers, they got married and grew old together
Because of the virtue of Pyrrha and Deucalion, what happens?
They are the sole survivors of the flood sent by Zeus/Jove
Who frees Prometheus by shooting the eagle with an arrow?
Herakles, son of Zeus and Semele
How is the fennel stalk comparable to Pandora? (HT)
Opposites. The fennel stalk looks pretty boring but has the good on the inside. Pandora is the opposite. Pandora is comparable to the meal that Prometheus gave to Zeus.
Which of Hesiod's plays mentions strife?
Hesiod's works and days
What does the word theory mean?
To gaze and marvel at something - ex. Pandora. She is a marvel to wonder at, different from the inside and outside.
What was Prometheus' punishment?
He was bound and had an eagle come and eat out his liver every day. It grew back overnight. Prometheus is an image of agonizing torture.
The feast at Mekone was the first ___ but the last _____________. (HT)
1. Sacrificial feast 2. Commensality between gods and mortals
Pandora is different on the outside than the inside. What does this invite?
Curiosity, interpretation, theory, desire.
What happened in the Golden Age of humans?
-No work, grief or old age -Easy death -Land brought forth food spontaneously -Peace, prosperity -The humans became spirits who roam the land, dispensing justice.
What will happen when Shame and Nemesis leave the world?
The Iron Age will end.
Which age did Hesiod relate to Perses in WAD?
Silver age: "acting like big babies, not giving him his honour"
What age was Hesiod from?
The Iron age
What was the bee hive analogy? (HT)
That woman are merely the bees of the hive that are fed by the worker bees (men) - they stuff their stomachs with the work of others
What is important about the population that grew from the earth in Ovid's Deucalion and Pyrrha?
They are autochthonous. They have ownership of the earth. They can claim it.
What is Hephaistos' special gift?
Fire, it is technology
Who was Deucalion?
The son of Prometheus
What oracle tells Deucalion and Pyrrha how to repopulate the earth? How do they do it?
The article of Themis (goddess and Titan). They are instructed to throw the bones of their mother over the shoulder onto the ground. They are the most virtuous people and don't want to, but Deucalion (smart son of Prometheus) suggests that they throw stone over their shoulders (mother earth), it works.
Who had 3 harvest seasons/year in the Isles of the Blest?
The Age of Heroes
What was Prometheus' first offence against Zeus? (HT)
He was the sacrificial priest at Mekone, he tricked Zeus. He hid the good fat in the bad tripe and gave it to the humans, and disguised the bad bone in the good fat and gave it to Zeus.
Who is often seen adorned by snakes? (HT)
What occurred in the silver age?
-100-year infancy with mother -Witless, painful adulthood -Hurt each other -GODLESS, no sacrifices -Zeus got angry and destroyed them
Why does Zeus fall for Prometheus' trick with the sacrificial division? (HT)
"Zeus knows everything" and yet he still falls for the trick. Zeus is deciding to get angry with Prometheus.
What does the name Epimetheus mean?
What occurred at Mekone? (HT)
Commensality between gods and mortals, they shared a feast for the LAST TIME
Out of Hesiod's stories, which is the human history? Which is the divine myth?
Human history - WAD Divine myth - HT
When were Hesiod's five ages introduced?
In Hesiod's Works and Days
What are Prometheus' two offences against Zeus? How does Zeus punish him for his offences? (HT)
1. The division of the food at Mekone 2. Stealing the fire from Zeus that he was withholding, and returning it to the humans Zeus punishes Prometheus by binding him to a rock, and having an eagle eat his liver everyday
When was the introduction of evil?
Which gods were involved in making Pandora in Works and Days?
1. Hephaistos makes her from clay 2. Athena teaches her weaving 3. Aphrodite makes her desirable 4. Hermes gives her a bitchy heart and a cheating mind inside!!! All of this is done by Zeus' will.
What was the age before Hesiod's age?
The Age of Heroes
What are the 2 different accounts for decline in Works and Days?
Prometheus and Pandora for the decline of the human race, and the five ages of humanity.
What is the "vertical and horizontal" bond that humans establish through a sacrificial feast? (HT)
They share a bond with the human community, and form a bond with the gods up on Olympus
What does the name Metis mean?
Who tells the story of Prometheus, Pandora, and the decline of humanity?
Hesiod does, TWICE! Once in Theogony, and once in Works and Days
Why does Hesiod mention strife in works and days?
Because he is quarrelling with his brother Perses - "let's settle this feud right now". He urges his brother to stop using his inherited wealth to give lawsuits to others. Hesiod says that he wishes he didn't have to work.
In Theogony, who are the creators of Pandora? (HT)
Hephaistos, Zeus, Athena
Which age of humans did god destroy? Why?
Silver age, because they were godless. They did not sacrifice to or service the gods.
What is a "pithos"?
Which age was "forgotten"?
The Bronze age
What are Hesiod's five ages, in order?
1. Golden age 2. Silver 3. Bronze 4. Age of Heroes 5. Iron
What is the etiological significance of the feast at Mekone? (HT)
It was the first sacrificial practice. Explains why the greeks continued to sacrifice.
Where does Prometheus hide the fire that Zeus was withholding from the humans? (HT)
In a fennel stalk
Zeus punishes the humans for Prometheus' actions twice... when? (HT)
1. He withdraws fire from them 2. He gives them Pandora, the woman
How is the hierarchy between animals, humans, and gods defined? (HT)
By what they eat, and by the way what they eat is cooked. The animals consume raw food, the humans consume cooked food, and the gods receive the smoke. FIRE is important.
What was the Age of Kronos?
The Golden age
Which age killed themselves off?
Which age had a 100 year infancy?
Why is fire important to humans? (HT)
Because it allows them to be distinguished from animals. Humans eat cooked food while animals eat raw food.
What happens to the four children of Iapetos and Clymene?
They are all punished
In WAD, who becomes the husband of Pandora?
Epimetheus - afterthought. Prometheus says not to take her as his bride but he doesn't think about it until later.
In works and days, why does Zeus give the humans evil?
He gives them evil (Pandora, women, love and embrace) in exchange for good (fire).
Who directs the creation of Pandora in Hesiod's Theogony? (HT)
What is Nemesis?
Retribution in the world - when we behave badly we are punished
Why did the Greeks make sacrifices to the gods on Olympos? (HT)
To request a divine favour.
Why was Prometheus punished for his trick against Zeus? (HT)
Because he was favouring the humans over Zeus
Who are the parents of Prometheus? Who are his siblings?
Iapetos (a Titan) and Clymene (a Titan's daugter). They have Atlas, Menoitos, Prometheus, and Epimetheus
What does the name Prometheus mean?
Who was Pyrrha?
The daughter of Pandora and Epimetheus
How are women a "necessary evil"? (HT)
They provide men with children to take care of them wen they grow old... otherwise men will have to give up their estate to distant relatives ... the lives of men would be wasted working for nothing
Why must humans work? (WD)
What occurred in the Age of Heroes?
-Died in battles commemorated in myths -Enjoyed afterlife in Isles of the Blest -3 harvest seasons/year for them