Who were the Vestal Virgins?
Virgins dedicated to Hestia, the hearthfire of Rome (and of the home everywhere else). Vestal virgins tend to the flame of Hestia.
They are appointed around the age of 10 years old. They spend 10 years as apprentices, then 10 years as vestal virgins, then 10 years as teachers (30 years as Vestal Virgins). They become free around the age of 40.
What does the name "Rhea Silvia" mean?
Silver woods/Ilea = Rome
What is rape used to depict in Roman stories?
Women are like the sacrificial victims - their rape leads the state of Rome to a next stage
What is a common theme of many Roman myths?
They are patriotic, in support of the Roman state. Reflects pragmatic (sensible and realistic) and patriotic values.
What did Augustus Caesar bring to the city of Rome in terms of culture?
Art, architecture, literature
What is Lares?
The numen of the people of the household.
Who becomes ruler after Julius Caesar is assassinated?
His adopted son Augustus (Octavian) Caesar, who is actually his nephew
What is the name Quirinus derived from?
The Sabine word for "spear" - Romulus as the war god
How did the Romans integrate the Greek culture into their own? Religion and gods?
They bowed to the Greeks and admired them, Greek art and literature was adapted to meet their own needs
Religiously, Roman numen took on the personalities of some of the Greek gods: ex. Jupiter/Jove, an Italian sky god took on the qualities of Zeus
After ridding the land of robbers, what is the first thing that Remus and Romulus do?
They avenge Numitor (their grandfather) after Amulius usurped the throne from him. They kill Amulius
What is a Senate?
A collection of old men
What does Lucretia do after Sextus Tarquin rapes her?
She summons her husband, Collatinus, and his friend Brutus. She tells them about Sextus Tarquin, and then is so upset she kills herself.
What is represented by the Pantheon? When was it built?
Built in 120 CE
It represents that the Romans were practical. The dome roof was extremely practical and architecturally stable. The front of the Pantheon was adorned with columns, and decorated like a Greek temple (ex. the Parthenon)
Like the Greeks, but better
What is the foundation sacrifice for the founding of Rome?
The life of Remus - Romulus kills him
Who was Lucretia?
A roman virtue and beauty, the wife of the Roman soldier Collatinus
Who are the parents of Remus and Romulus?
Rhea Silvia and Mars (Ares)
After Brutus hears of Lucretia's rape, what does he do?
He led a revolt against the Etruscan monarchy (because Sextus Tarquin was Etruscan) and founded the Republic and the Senate
How are numina different from the Greek gods?
They are not anthropomorphic, and there are many more of them. Numina are also very limited in their functions.
How did the Greeks directly influence Roman myth?
By colonizing Southern Italy, passing their myths along from there.
What does Amulius do to Rhea Silvia?
She is appointed as a Vestal Virgin by Amulius, he does this to prevent her from having any children, so that Amulius is not driven from the throne by Numitor's rightful kin
What is Penates?
The numen of the things in your house; your belongings
How did Augustus Caesar keep the peace while ending the Rupublic?
His allowed them to keep their institutions (The Senate)
Out of Numitor and Amulius, which one took the throne? Who was rightful?
Numitor was the rightful king, but he was driven out by Amulius
Where is Latium?
Italy. This is where Rome is located.
At the beginning of Rome, what did the population consist of?
A lot of fugitives, and Romulus
Aeneas founded ____ and his son Acanius founded ____
2. Alba Longa
Lavinium is kind of a linker city before Rome... what is the next one where the line of legendary kings that Livy wrote about?
Alba Longa - had a long line of legendary kings
Where did Amulius leave Remus and Romulus to die in a basket?
In the river Tiber
Where is Etruscan?
What type of numen is Janus?
A gate, the numen of doors, bridges, etc.
Who contributed the names Minerva (Athena), Juno (Hera), and Jupiter (Zeus)?
Why and when is Julius Caesar assassinated?
The Senate of Rome saw him as a threat, as the dictator of Rome from 47-44 BCE. He is assassinated on the Ides of March. (March 15, 44 BCE)
When did the Roman Empire conquer the Greek Empire?
In the 2nd century, BCE
Cf. Roman rape to Greek rape
Greek rape (ex. Helen) - leads to death and destruction on both sides (Paris, stealing her from Menelaus) - Trojan war
Roman rape: leads to the progression of the Roman state (Lucretia, Rhea Silvia, Sabine women)
After Rhea Silvia is appointed as a Vestal Virgin, what happens to her?
She is raped by Mars (Ares, the war god) and becomes pregnant with twins; Remus and Romulus
Who are the parents and grandparents of Romulus and Remus?
Parents: Mars/Ares (war-god) and Rhea Silvia (Ilia)
Grandparents: Numitor (brother of Amulius)
Who was overthrown by Brutus?
Tarquin the Proud
What does Roman MYTH have strong links to?
Roman LEGEND - much less supernatural, much more realistic
When did Aeneas, Anchises, Ascanius, and the refugees flee from Troy? When did they found Rome?
Flee to Italy: 1225 BCE
Founding of Rome: 753 BCE (almost 400 years later)
This historical gap is filled with Roman legends
Where were the Etruscans dominant? When?
Most of the Italian Peninsula until 509 BCE, during the Roman revolt
Who ended the war between the Sabines and the Romans?
The Sabine women, who finally became accustomed to their marriages with the Roman men
How did the Greeks indirectly influence the Romans?
By having an influence on the Etruscans, which subsequently influenced the Greeks
Who were Numitor and Amulius?
Two brothers, who were also rivals for the throne
What city did Aeneas found?
He founded Lavinium
What Roman ruler crossed the turn of the century?
Augustus Caesar - led a long line of kings
Who were the two Augustan poets?
Who were the Etruscans?
A culturally sophisticated, politically powerful nation
Who was the son of Aeneas?
Ascanius/Ilius (cf. Ileum/Troy)
Who was the son of the last Etruscan ruler, Tarquin the Proud?
Who takes the throne; Remus or Romulus? What happens?
Romulus takes the throne - they battled each other for it, but Remus died at the hands of Romulus.
Romulus then founds the new city; Rome.
What happened to Romulus when he died?
He disappeared into a cloud, thus undergoing Apotheosis as Quirinus, worshipped as a warrior god
Overall, why was Augustus Caesar "worshiped"?
For keeping the peace, and ending the civil wars
Who raped Rhea Silvia?
Why are numina also known as "nodders"?
Because you pray to them for consent, and hope for their "nod".
What was the festival of the Consualia?
It was a party that Romulus began - he invited a lot of people (especially women, because his men in Rome were mostly fugitives, and it was not easy for them to find wives), including the Sabine women.
They came unarmed, for a party, and during the festival, the Roman men were armed, and attacked the Sabine fathers.
Long war over the Sabine women, but the women ended up ending the war. They become pregnant, and marry off to the Romans.
Who did Aeneas escape the battle of Troy with?
Ascanius (son), Anchises (father), and a group of refugees
What are the Roman names for Ares and Aphrodite?
Mars and Venus
Who suckles Remus and Romulus? Who raises them?
The she wolf suckles them, the shepherds raise them
Where is Sabine?
What was sacrificium to the Romans?
Giving to a numen, asking for something from them in return - making sacrifice
Who was Aeneas?
The son of Aphrodite and Ares
When did the Greeks colonize Italy (hence having an effect on Roman culture)?
During the Archaic period - they colonized southern Italy
What are the 3 influences on Roman myth?
1. Native Italian religion 2. Etruscan myth and ritual 3. Greek colonies in Italy
What does Romulus' name become after he undergoes apotheosis?
Quirinus (a war god)
Who was the Italian Sky God like?
Zeus - took on a paternal role
What words go along with sacrificium?
Do ut des (I give, so you can give)
Which author wrote about the long line of kings from Alba Longa?
Who founded the Roman Senate and Republic?
Brutus (out of anger after Lucretia is raped)
What 3 important Roman women are raped?
1. Rhea silvia (daughter of Numitor, descendent of Aeneas and Ascanius from Alba Longa)
2. Sabine women
How was superstition a part of the Etruscan culture?
They believed in augury and omens, in which augury is a a sign of something that will happen in the future. They made decisions based on superstitions.
Where was Amulius the king of?
Who was Lucretia raped by?
How did the Romans connect themselves to the Greeks?
Through the story of Aeneas, which connected Rome to the battle of Troy, which the Greeks won.
Does Rhea Silvia raise Remus and Romulus?
No, they are raised by a she-wolf, raised far from home on the countryside - a typical characteristic of a Greek hero (but they are Roman) until they are rescued by shepherds
What act constitutes the beginning of Rome? Who is the person who founded it a descendent of?
Fratricide: the killing of a brother. It is founded by Romulus; a descendent of Ares (war god), and Aphrodite (love god), distantly
What do the stories of Rhea Silvia, the Sabine Women, and Lucretia have in common?
Rhea Silvia: raped by Ares (Remus and Romulus are her children) - Rome was founded because of this
Sabine women: raped by the earliest Romans
-founded a population of Romans
Lucretia: raped by Sextus Tarquin
-overthrowing of the Etruscan's
What did Augustus Caesar put an end to in his rule?
1. The Rupublic (started by Brutus in 509 BCE)
2. The civil war that was occurring in Rome for a really long time
What is the "heroic act" Romulus and Remus do together when they come of age?
They rid the land of "robbers".
This is their heroic act, equivalent to when Zeus, etc. rids the land of a dragon
Specifically, where is Rome located in Italy?
Who were known for their "Romans and omens"?
Are Roman stories more legends or myths?
Legends: they have historical locations that they can still be traced to today on a map
What is also known as the "asylum for fugitives"?
It opens the doors for fugitives, rather than growing them (ex. Thebes - autochthonous)
Who is Rome named after?
What 2 main heroes did we learn about that underwent apotheosis?
When are Cleopatra and Mark Anthony defeated?
In 31 BCE at the Battle of Actium
How did Augustus Caesar gain power in the Roman Empire?
After julius was assassinated, he shared the rule with Mark Anthony. They become enemies and a civil war onsets.
How did Sextus Tarquin rape Lucretia when she had a husband? What does he threaten of her?
He entered her home as a guest and raped her while her husband Collatinus was away on military duty. She is found weaving—a sign of virtue—and he is intrigued. He threatens her with a sword, and threatens to kill her. He says he found her sleeping with a slave if she doesn't comply.
How many times was Aeneas rescued at Troy?
1. Aphrodite saves Aeneas from Diomedes, and Diomedes wounds Aphrodites with his sword (Apollo takes over)
2. ??? Richard Parker...
Did the Greeks colonize the South or North of Italy? What about the Etruscans?
How do the twins find the she wolf?
Amulius tries to do away with them by putting them in a basket on the River Tiber, the she-wolf finds the basket at the shore
Who is Numitor's daughter?
Rhea Silvia (Ilia)
Before 509 BCE, who ruled Rome? Who was the last Etruscan king?
The Etruscan monarchy, Tarquin the Proud was the final Etruscan ruler
What is a numen (singular)/numina (plural)
The divine to the Italians. They are gods.