Who is Phoebus?
Who is Diana?
Who is Leto?
A Titan, a daughter of Kronos, the mother of Apollo and Artemis
What is the political nature of Apollo and Artemis?
They are both aristocratic
How does Leto find a place to give birth?
Zeus and Leto (Titan) make love (they are nephew and Aunt), and Leto conceived Apollo and Artemis. Hera prohibits Leto from giving birth, and she is forced to wander, until she can find a place that will offer her shelter. The island of Delos finally agrees, after making oath on the River Styx that a temple should be built there by Apollo
What does the name "Delos" mean?
Why is Leto forced to wander while pregnant with the twins?
Because Hera is jealous that she is pregnant with Zeus' babies.
How is Hera like Ouranos?
Both force children to stay inside of the mother
In which two ways does Hera attempt to restrain Leto from having her kids?
1. Hera doesn't allow her to have birth in most places, Delos is an exception because it's a floating island 2. She restrains Eileithyia (goddess of childbirth) from attending Leto while she's giving birth, but she is changed for a necklace
Who is Eileithyia?
The goddess of childbirth - Hera restrains her from attending the birth to Leto, but she is bribed to attend by a necklace
Where does Leto finally give birth?
On Delos, clinging to a palmtree.
Who does Leto give birth to first? What is the significance of this?
She gives birth to Artemis first, fully grown. She assists in the childbirth of Apollo/
What did Greek women often call upon Artemis for?
To ease their labour pains in childbirth
Why did women get labour pains? (etiology)
Because Artemis is a virgin—Artemis' resentment at the mother for not being a virgin
What was the name of Apollo's barren birthplace?
Where is a rich cult-centre of Apollo?
Delos—it contained the treasury of the Delian League before it was transferred to Athens (Delos had a great deal of wealth)
What temple was finally built on Delos to commemorate the birth of Apollo?
In the Homeric Hymn to Apollo, who is Hera the mother of?
What occurs in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo?
Apollo's birth at Delos, his journey, slaying dragon, establishment of Pytho
What dragon does Apollo slay? What dragon does Zeus slay?
Apollo slays Python Zeus slays Typhoeus They are essentially the same
What are both Typhoeus and Python associated with?
Female divinity and challenging a male god. Female divinity: Gaia and Hera
What trees are Athena and Apollo associated with?
Athena = olive trees Apollo = palm trees
What is the name of the cult centre that Apollo establishes at Delos?
Pytho (mostly known as Delphi)
Who are the parents of Typhoeus in Theogony? Who in Homeric Hymn to Apollo?
Theogony: Gaia and Tartarus Apollo: Hera–when Hera was angry with Zeus for having Athena asexually, she gave birth to BOTH Typhoeus and Hephaestus
What are the three things Apollo is associated with?
1. The lyre, beautiful music 2. The bow, the "far-shooter" 3. Delphi - Apollo is the god of prophecy
What is Apollo the god of?
Where does Apollo try to build his temple?
Telphusa a river. Apollo wants to build his temple near it. She doesn't want him building his temple there, and she sends him further away.
What happens when Apollo is born?
He is covered in necta and ambrosia that makes him grow very quickly.
What are some of the key characteristics of Apollo?
1. Young, beautiful, athletic 2. Prophet 3. Plays the lyre 4. Talented with bow and arrow 5. Wealthy, aristocratic
Who is Apollo a model for?
The ephebe, a young man. 18-20 years old, about to enter into military service.
How is Apollo associated with harmony, proportion, and moderated tension?
The bow, the lyre.
What are some of the inscriptions at the cult-centre in Delphi?
"Know yourself", and "nothing in excess"
How does Apollo board the pirate ship and travel with them?
He turns into a dolphin, and when he turns back he is "like a star from clear day" - Apollo is associated with brightness and shining.
Why does Telphusa tell Apollo to build his temple elsewhere?
Because people with bring Hecatoons to Apollo's temple to worship him. She leads him to a place with the dragon
Why does Apollo have to slay a dragon?
To establish a spot to build his temple.
Who answered questions at Pytho?
Pythia, a priestess. Her answers were subsequently interpreted by male priests, because her answers were unintelligible.
Who does Apollo frequently lead?
The muses on Olympus - he leads them with the lyre
Who is the god of medicine?
Asclepius, the son of Apollo
What does Paeon mean?
Healer - Apollo is a healer
What special power did Apollo have because of his arrows?
He could cause illness and plagues (ex. Iliad) and for this reason he was called upon in sickness, and he purified those tainted by miasma.
What people did Apollo heal?
Those in sickness, and those tainted by ritual pollution (miasma)
Why is Apollo unlucky in love?
Because he has unfortunate relationships with 4 different women.
Who does Apollo have relationships with? What happens?
1. Daphne: she wishes to turn into a tree, and she turns into a branch of laurel to avoid Apollo who is in love with her 2. Hyacinth: a young MAN Apollo fell in love with - Apollo accidentally killed him with a discus, and turned him into a hyacinth flower 3. Coronis: mother of Asclepius, Apollo killed her once he found out she was being unfaithful 4. Cassandra: Trojan princess—Apollo offered the gift of prophecy and she accepted, but refused him as a lover. He made it so no one would ever believe her predictions and she looked like a fool.
Which Trojan princess does Apollo have a relationship with?
Cassandra - he gives her the useless gift of prophecy
Who is the mother of Asclepius?
Coronis - Apollo kills her for being unfaithful
How did Hyacinth die?
A boy Apollo loved - killed by a discus
Who did Apollo loved that turned into a laurel tree?
Who did Apollo pay penance to?
The mortal Admetus, for killing some of the cyclopes who made Zeus' thunderbolts
Athena is a perpetual virgin who likes war and crafts. What does Artemis like?
Hunting—both like masculine pursuits. She likes the wilderness.
Who was Callisto?
A follower of Artemis, a virgin. She was impregnated by Zeus. Artemis got angry at her for breaking her pact of virginity, and changed her into a bear. She had a son Arcas (also a bear). Arcas was rescued by Hermes and turned back into a human. Arcas then hunts his mother, not knowing that it's her. CATASTERIZATION of them both, because Zeus feels bad. The hunter becomes the hunted.
Who was Arcas?
The son of Callisto and Zeus.
Who was Actaeon?
A hunter, he accidentally saw Artemis bathing. Artemis changes him into a stag, and his own team kills him by sparagmos.
How does Actaeon die?
Sparagmos, by his own team of hunters who thinks he's a stag, because he saw Artemis bathing
Who saw Artemis bathing?
What was Artemis' association with animals?
She was the huntress, but also tamed and protected wild animals. She was a MOTHER-GODDESS to them.
Who does Artemis particularly protect?
Young animals and young girls.
What is Artemis' association with young girls?
They were often associated with wildness until they were "tamed" by marriage. As they approached marriage age, they ritually dedicated their toys to Artemis, danced for her, and wove wreaths to her. Artemis presided over rites of passage of young girls into adolescence.
Why did young girls honour Artemis?
Because they are about to leave her world of wildness, as they are tamed by marriage.
What was Brauronia?
A festival dedicated to Artemis, where women performed the bear-dance in order to honour Artemis. Girls approaching marriage age performed the bear dance.
Who was Niobe?
A queen with 14 children (7 sons and 7 daughters). She boasted that she was superior to Leto (mother of Apollo and Artemis) by having more children, therefore committing hybris. Apollo and Artemis slayed all of her children. She did not eat for 10 days out of grief.
Who committed hybris against Leto?
Niobe - Apollo and Artemis attacked her for it.
How was Niobe commemorated?
There is a mountain with a stream running down it constantly. This was said to be Niobe forever lamenting the death of her children. An icon of loss, grief, and lament.
When is Niobe referred to in a later story?
By Achilles to Priam, convincing him to eat after Hector's death.
Who were the 14 children that Apollo and Artemis slaughtered?