What is Zeus' downfall in Prometheus Bound?
He is omnipotent, but not omniscient. Prometheus knows a secret that can destroy him. Zeus needs this knowledge.
What was performed at the City Dionysia?
3 tragedies + 1 Satyr play (TETRALOGY) per day, one tetralogy on each of the three days. Each tetralogy was by a single playwright. 3-5 comedies were performed by different playwrights.
What relative of Fate is mentioned in Prometheus Bound? In what context?
Necessity: a power that not even the gods can overpower. Prometheus has the knowledge of the fate that will affect Zeus.
How did Zeus evade the premonition that he would sleep with Nereid Thetis?
He mated her off with Peleus, a mortal. They have the son Achilles.
Who represented Zeus in Prometheus bound?
Might and Force, servants of Zeus - they personified Zeus, representing his violence and strength
How does Prometheus benefit the human race in Prometheus Bound?
He directs Io to Zeus and Zeus from Thetis. He makes things more ordered. In Theogony and Works and Days he does the opposite.
What are some characteristics of Dionysus?
-exotic -gender confusion -"the other" -wine god -dissolver of boundaries -uncooked meat
Who wrote Prometheus Bound?
What is so bad about Io being turned into a cow?
It puts her on the same level as animals in the hierarchy
What was thought to have occurred in Prometheus the Firebearer?
Alliance of Strength and Knowledge (Zeus and Prometheus). Prometheus is given special honours. Celebrated in Athens as a culture hero.
Who is Nereid Thetis?
A beautiful sea goddess, who if she sleeps with Zeus, will bear a son mightier than him.
How was Io initially contacted by Zeus? What did Inachus do about this?
Io kept having dreams that Zeus wants to mate with her in a meadow. She confides in her father. Inachus consults Delphi and Dodona to see what he should do. He is told that if he doesn't force Io into exile, Zeus would send a flaming lightning bolt and end the whole human race. He is basically made to sacrifice her, and he does.
What did Prometheus teach humans?
-intellect (they used to be stupid) -how to understand -invented arithmetic -how to tell which seasons were coming -All the artistic skills came from Prometheus
How does Zeus act in Prometheus Bound?
He is cruel, ruthless, and pitiless. The role of ruler is new to him and he is anxious about it, and wants to gain respect from the others.
What does Prometheus do for Io when they finally meet?
He predicts her future. He predicts all of the many places she still has to travel, and he draws her a map. He tells her of all of the places that will commemorate her (Ionious, Oxford). Predicts her reuniting with Zeus in Egypt, and the long line of Kings they will have together.
What makes Prometheus the spectacle of pain?
He is divine and immortal and therefore he is suffering an eternity of pain.
How does Zeus liberate Io from Argus?
He sends Hermes down to kill him. Hermes plays a beautiful song on his lyre, putting Argus to sleep before cutting off his head, killing him.
Who stopped Zeus from wiping out the human race in the first place?
Prometheus did. Zeus wanted to wipe them out. Prometheus is the saviour of the human race. He also gave them fire in the fennel stalk, and the tripe covered fat at Mekone.
Was Hermes in Prometheus Bound?
What is Io's role in Prometheus Bound?
-suffers to benefit the human race by beginning a race of heroes -victim of Zeus' lust -female, mortal -ignorant of her fate
How were the costumes of the dithyrambs representative of Dionysus?
Men dressing in womens masks and stockings = gender confusion, Dionysus is the dissolver of boundaries. The masks were painted vibrantly so that everyone in the audience could see the emotions they were trying to portray
How does Zeus finally impregnate Io? Who is their offspring?
By a simple touch. Their son is Epaphus, whose name means touch.
What is interesting about the theatres that were used for plays like Prometheus Bound?
They were very large and open, outdoors with great acoustics. The mountains and environment became a part of the settings.
Who is found torturing and binding Prometheus?
Hephaistos, by the order of Zeus
What is Prometheus' secret that he knows about Zeus?
Whoever sleeps with Nereid Thetis (goddess) will have a son mightier than himself. This son would overthrow Zeus, and Zeus will want to sleep with her. This is conditional.
Compare Prometheus' effect on the humans in PB and Hesiod's Works and Days.
Prometheus Bound: saviour of the human race, taught them intellect Works and Days: Pandora and all of the problems of the human race were the result of Prometheus
What were some of the ceremonies that occurred at City Dionysia?
1. Procession and sacrifices to Dionysus, carrying the statue of the phallace 2. Display of tribute: public display of the wealth, power and prestige of Athens 3. Presentation of hoplite armour to sons of war-dead: city taking the orphans in, the relationship between the city and citizens 4. Recognition of benefactors: people who did a huge favour to the city, helped in war, etc.
What generation of Io's descendents returned from Egypt to Greece?
What was a dithyramb?
A chorus of 50 men or boys that sang in honour of Dionysus at City Dionysia. Very expensive. Ten tribes of 50 Dithyrambs. They were all dressed up in very expensive costumes.
What do Io and Prometheus have in common? How are they different?
They both suffer to benefit the human race. Both are eventually reconciled with Zeus Io is constantly in motion, Prometheus is isolated and bound. Prometheus takes control of his own fate. Io is clueless, Prometheus is omniscient. Io is a mortal, Prometheus is a god.
How is the chorus related to Prometheus?
They are daughters of Ocean (Titan), while Prometheus is the son of Iapetos (Titan) - they are cousins
What does Hera do when she finally gains possession of Io as the cow?
She sets a guard for Io: Argus, with a hundred eyes all over his body.
Why does Io wander to the ends of the earth (where she meets Prometheus)?
Because Hera sent a gadfly after her which keeps stinging her. It is driving her mad. When she meets Prometheus she is going insane and wants to die. She has no idea what is happening to her (but Prometheus does).
How does Hephaistos feel about chaining up Prometheus?
He doesn't want to. The Chorus thinks that he should be happy to punish Prometheus for stealing his fire to give to the mortals, but he is not, instead, he is sympathetic.
Who were the performers at the City Dionysia?
Athenian citizens. The whole festival was run by Athens. There were only male performers, and performances were targeted to a male audience. It is unknown whether or not females were allowed to attend.
Who was the chorus in Prometheus Bound?
The Daughters of Ocean
Who wrote the most tragic plays: Aeschylus, Sophocles, or Euripides?
Euripides wrote 18, the others both wrote 7
Was Hephaistos in Prometheus bound?
What form is Io in when she meets Prometheus?
She is a cow, and a gadfly keeps stinging her, she has no idea what's happening
Who was Io the daughter of?
Inachus, the river god, but Io is mortal
What was the City Dionysia? When was it held?
A rural festival, brought into the city; an annual Athenian festival in honour of Dionysus. Held in spring, at the beginning of sailing season so that more people could attend. Timing reflects that of democracy in Athens. Athens sponsored it as a public event, where every public business was forced to shut down. EVERYONE could attend–even people in jail.
What happens with Hera when Zeus goes to mate with Io?
Hera follows him. Zeus has his way with her in a meadow, and he hides it under a single cloud. Hera notices, and Zeus panics, turning Io into a cow. Hera asks for the cow as a gift from Zeus. He has to give it to her and he does.
What was the trilogy of Prometheus Bound?
1. Prometheus Bound 2. Prometheus Unbound 3. Prometheus the Firebearer
Who was tragedy part of the worship to?
What was thought to have occurred in Prometheus Unbound?
Prometheus is set free by Herakles (descendent of Io), many generations later. Prometheus shares the secret about Thetis with Zeus, and she is married off to Peleus.
Where will Zeus and Io meet again in Prometheus' prediction?
After the Nile in Egypt. This is where Zeus will impregnate Io.
Zeus is all-_____, but Prometheus is all-_____.
1. Powerful - Zeus is OMNIPOTENT 2. Knowing - PROMETHEUS IS OMNISCIENT
How did tragedy originate?
1. Part of ritual worship to Dionysus 2. Choral song and dance, telling a story 3. Eventual enactment of the story 4. Gradual movement of emphasis from chorus to acted episodes
What famous hero(es) is the descendent of Io and Zeus?
Herakles (son of Alkmene) Perseus (son of Danae)
How does the chorus treat Prometheus? What do they advise him? Does Prometheus follow their advice?
They are sympathetic to him. They are relatives. They advise Prometheus to give Zeus what he wants becuse things can get much worse. Prometheus does not follow their advice, he maintains his secrecy.
When was Prometheus Bound written? Who is attributed with writing it?
Mid fifth century BCE, attributed to Aeschylus, part of a trilogy
What name did Hermes gain for killing the guard of Io?
To act as ______ at the City Dionysia was a form of liturgy. They were chosen by the ______.
1. Choregos 2. Archon
When did the City Dionysia begin?
Who was the patron god of theatre?
When Ocean finally intervenes with Prometheus, what does he say?
He tells Prometheus to give it up, to make friends with Zeus.
Who was the only mortal in Prometheus Bound?
Who paid to outfit the Dithyramb? Who chose this person?
The CHOREGOS: one of the richest in the tribe The ARCHON chose the choregos
What instrument accompanied tragic plays?
The aulos, a pipe accompanied the music of tragedy
Why is Prometheus Bound an unusual play?
It is a DIVINE tragedy, all of the characters are gods except for Io
How were Prometheus and Zeus once allies?
In the Titanomacy, he persuaded Zeus to fight the battle with intelligence. Prometheus helped Zeus win the battle. Prometheus is angry about the way he's being treated by Zeus after he helped him so much.
What happened at the end of the City Dionysia?
The best playwrights were awarded great prizes - very competitive. This was a display of the wealth at Athens.
Who were the 3 major tragedians?
1. Aeschylus 2. Sophocles 3. Euripides Archaic time period for the most part - Euripides was slightly Classical.
Who were the 50 daughter and 50 sons?
They were all cousins. Fourth generation descendents of Io and Zeus. The women were all assigned to marry the men. The daughters fled to Argos (Greece) from Egypt, and the men followed. On the wedding night, the 49 women killed the 49 men. There was one surviving couple that carried on her lineage, giving rise to Herakles.