Flashcards in The Reformation + Plantations Deck (70):
Structure of the Catholic Church
Monks, nuns and friars.
Abuses in the Church
nepotism, simony, pluralism and absenteeism.
What is nepotism?
Appointing a relative to an important position in the Church, eg a bishop.
What is simony?
Involved the buying and selling of Church positions.
What is pluralism?
Holding more than one position in the Church, eg a bishop of two dioceses.
What is absenteeism?
Bishops or priests not living in their dioceses or parishes. Closely associated with pluralism, some bishops rarely visited their dioceses as they were too busy acting as advisors to their Kings.
(eg. Cardinal Wolsey)
Causes of the Reformation.
The behaviour of popes and bishops.
The wealth and power of the Church.
Poorly educated priests.
Abuses: simony, nepotism, pluralism and absenteeism.
The sale of indulgences.
Renaissance: questioning of accepted beliefs.
A period of religious change that led to a devision among Christians.
Christians who broke away from the Catholic Church.
Tickets that reduced the time spent in purgatory after they died, according to the Church.
The study of religion.
A person who disagreed with the Church's teachings.
A law passed by an emperor.
A follower of Martin Luther.
A meeting (that involved princes)
Where was John Calvin born? What did he convert to?
He converted to Luther's teaching at university.
What book did John Calvin write?
'Institutes of the Christian Religion'
What did John Calvin believe?
The bible was the source of all teachings.
Believed that there shouldn't be popes or bishops.
Only two sacraments, baptism and Eucharist.
Predestination (God had chosen who got into heaven before they were born)
Believed that there was no presence of Christ at Communion (unlike Luther)
Structure of the the Calvinist Church.
Elders - made sure people led good lives.
Doctors - responsible for doctrine (Church's teachings)
Pastor - preached and spread the word of God.
Deacons - cared for the poor and the sick.
Life as a Calvinist
Expected to live good and holy lives.
No drinking, dancing, gambling or plays.
Sunday was a day of rest.
People who disobeyed were fined, imprisoned, or hanged.
Followers were called Calvinists, Puritans (England), and Huguenots (France)
The six wives of Henry VIII
Catherine of Aragon divorced
Anne Boleyn beheaded
Jane Seymour died
Anne of Cleves divorced
Kathryn Howard beheaded
Katherine Parr survived
When you end a marriage if it was based on a lie. (Ending of marriage by Catholic Church)
The King's Great Matter
When Henry demanded a divorce/annulment from his marriage with Catherine of Aragon to the pope.
Dissolution of the Monasteries
King Henry VIII did not trust the monks to be loyal, and he wanted their wealth and land so he closed down monasteries.
Act of Supremacy
Law that made the ruler of England the head of the Church of England.
Book of common prayer
Book written by Thomas Granmer used in churches.
Articles that were brought in by Elizabeth I
Catholics that felt Elizabeth had gone too far and were against her.
Followers of the ideas of Calvin.
Religious change in Tudor England.
-broke with Rome
-Act of Supremacy
-kept Catholic beliefs
-Introduced Protestant reforms
-made England Catholic.
-made England Protestant
Write an account about the Inquisition.
-Church court set up to try heretics. (People who held different views to the Church)
-Active in Spain, Portugal and Italy.
-Founded in Spain to persecute Jews and Muslims.
-Punishments: fines, torture, executions.
-People brought to Inquisition were not told of their crimes.
-Famously tried Galileo.
-Auto-da-fé was a religious ceremony where heretics were punished.
-Minor offences had to wear a sanbenito.
-Protestants exaggerated numbers killed by Inquisition to make the Church look bad.
-Priests who were heretics were immediately executed.
Write an account of The Jesuits/The Society of Jesus.
-Founded by Ignatius Loyola, an ex-soldier from Spain.
-Members totally loyal to Pope. They went wherever they sent them.
-Built based off an army.
-Head of order was called Superior General.
-Pope Clement XIV abolished Jesuits as a society in 1773.
-Pope Pius VII restored Jesuit order in 1814 after being freed from exile.
What the Counter-Reformation involved.
Council of Trent:
Decisions on discipline and church teachings.
Missionary work in Protestant countries.
Church court that persecuted Protestants.
Response of the Catholic Church to try to stop the spread of Protestanism.
Punishment because of religious beliefs.
Council of Trent
Meeting of leading cardinals and bishops that tackled issues in the Church such as the abuses.
Jesuits/Society of Jesus
Set up by Ignatius Loyola to carry out missionary work and to educate wealthy people.
Beliefs that were held and taught by the Catholic Church.
Special school that was used to train priests.
Book written by Ignatius Loyola to guide the Jesuits in their search for holy lives.
St. Francis Xavier.
Famous Jesuit and missionary.
Church Court that tried people with different beliefs to the Church. (Heretics)
Religious ceremony where the sentences passed by the inquisition were carried out.
A list of books that Catholics were forbidden to read.
Peace of Augsburg
Where they agreed that the Prince of each state decided it's religion.
A special clothing worn as punishment for minor offences.
The common language of an area.
Reformation in England.
-Henry VIII was from the Tudor family.
-Opposed Luther's beliefs, awarded with title of 'Defender of Faith' by Pope.
-Married Catherine of Aragon and had one child, Mary.
-Fell in love with Anne Boleyn and wanted to leave Catherine to marry her.
-Catholic Church did not permit divorce.
Henry broke off with Rome and changed England's religion to Protestanism.
-Act of Supremacy passed in 1534, made Henry head of the English Church.
-Edward VI took over after Henry's death.
-Allowed Thomas Cranmer to introduce Protestant beliefs.
-Edward died at 16, Mary became queen.
-Mary turned England Catholic and burned Protestants.
-Elizabeth succeeded Mary.
-Elizabeth turned the country Protestant and passed Act of Supremacy to make her head of Church.
Reformation in Ireland
-Henry VIII introduced religious changes in areas under English rule. (Pale)
-New Church of Ireland set up.
-Church recognised King Henry as head.
-However it had little support.
-This was because Gaelic Irish were suspicious of anything English and remained Catholic. Most of Old English refused to accept new church.
-Even in the Pale, Elizabeth's reforms had little impact.
-English officials were worried Ireland could be used as a base by England's Catholic enemies.
Gaelic Lords - who ruled, language, marriage laws, land, dress.
Gaelic Lords ruled over a clan.
Followed Brehon Law. Only form of punishment was a fine.
Divorce alloved. Wives could keep own name + property when they married.
Land belonged to whole clan.
women- long tunic + cloak (mantle)
men- knee-length tunic + mantle.
Old English Lords - Who ruled, language, laws, marriage laws, land, dress.
Descendants from Norman Lords. Own private army.
Mostly Brehon law but they used English laws when it suited them.
Followed Gaelic Lords. (Brehon law)
Divorce allowed, wives kept name + land when they married.
Followed English law. Eldest son inherited land + richer people owned land while others had leases.
Women - long tunic and mantle
Men - knee-length tunic and mantle.
The Pale - who ruled, language, laws, marriage laws, land, dress.
King/Queen of England.
English common law. King appointed judged to go from place to place.
Wife took husband's name and divorce not allowed. (King Henry VII + Henry VIII)
Richer people were landowners. Everyone else had leases.
English dress. Women wore shoes, stockings, gowns.
what happened to land
Who organised it: Queen Mary I in 1550s.
Why: Wanted to control more of Ireland and protect people in the Pale from the Irish raiding them.
Land taken: taken from the O'Connors and the O'Mores.
What happened to land: 1/3 given back to O'Connors and O'Mores. (Boggy land) 2/3 given to settlers. Lands named 'King's County (O'Mores' territory) and Queen's County. (O'Connor's territory.)
Success? Why?: No. Not enough settlers.
Surrender and regrant
Where King Henry would get Lords to give up their land, and he would give it back to them along with a title. The lords also had to adopt the English customs and speak English.
When people are sent to another country to take land and live and work there.
People who claimed to be descendants from Norman Lords. They said that they owned the lands.
People who received estates in a plantation and had to follow the rules of the Plantation.
What did Undertakers have to do?
They had to bring in English families as servants and tenants.
They had to build a castle and pay for protection.
They were not allowed to employ Gaelic Irish.
They had to follow the Protestant religion.
Undertakers - who, what they got, rent, who they could rent to.
Who they were:
English and Scottish landowners.
What they got:
Most got estates of 2,000 acres.
£5 per 1,000 acres.
Who they could rent land to:
They had to bring in English or Scottish tenants and could not rent land to Irish tenants.
Servitors - who, what they got, rent, who they could rent land to.
(got 13% of land)
Englishmen and Scots who worked for the Irish government. (Most were soldiers.)
What they got:
estates of 1,500 or 1,000 acres.
£8 per 1,000 acres.
Who they could rent land to:
Could rent land to Irish.
Loyal Irish - who, what they got, rent, who they could rent land to.
(got 14% of land.)
Gaelic Irish who stayed loyal to the King.
What they got:
Estates of 1,000 acres or less.
£10 per 1,000 acres.
Who they could rent land to:
They could rent land to Irish tenants.
House of an undertake.
Flight of the Earls
When Gaelic Ulster lord left Ireland because they refused to accept English rule.
War the Gaelic Ulster lords went into with the English because English officials were telling them how to run their territories.
Battle of Kinsale.
Battle that the English won against the Irish and Spanish armies in 1601.
English and Scots who worked for the government. (Most were soldiers) They got land in the Ulster plantation.
Ulster Plantation - Political control.
-Gaelic lords left Ulster in Flight of the Earls and their land was then taken by English and Scottish people sent over.
-First successful plantation by British ruler in Ireland. Conditions under which planters received land were more strictly enforced.
Prior to 1600, Ulster was the most Gaelic part of Ireland.
-Gaelic Irish attacked planters. In 1641 they rebelled and killed over 4,000 but failed to regain control.
-English common law replaced Brehon Law. Judges and magistrates were appointed to enforce law, Sheriffs administered the province.
-Towns became common throughout Ulster. They were seen as necessary to control the planted area.
-Long term effects can be seen in 20th century when most of Ulster resisted Home Rule. Today Ulster is still part of the UK.
Ulster Plantation - Religion
-Protestant settlers outnumbered native Irish.
-Scottish settlers introduced Presbyterianism, English settlers were Anglican. Attempts were made to outlaw Catholicism completely.
-Religious differences caused tension between native population and settlers.
-Religious hatred remained to this day and contributed to events such as the Troubles.
-Settlers built churches, taking over existing Catholic churches.
-Land was set aside for building of Royal Schools for Protestant children.
Ulster Plantation - Culture and Customs.
-Settlers outnumbered native Irish. English language replaced Irish language.
-English and Scottish customs introduced to Ulster.
-English common law replaced Brehon law as law of Ulster.
-Best land was in hands of English and Scottish settlers. Gradual change from Gaelic practice of pasture farming (animals) to growing of crops called tillage farming.
-Some of Scottish settlers were skilled in textiles and textile industry flourished in Ulster.
-Settlers introduced towns. Separate quarters developed for settlers and for native Irish who were not allowed within the walls of the towns. Eg. Bogside in Derry.
-Gaelic Irish were generally poorer than settlers and lived in smaller houses. Towns received charters which allowed them to hold markets and fairs.