Flashcards in Ireland 1900-1914 Deck (33):
Majority of Irish Catholics were nationalists
Wanted Home Rules with own parliament in Dublin to govern local affairs like education and health
Felt Ireland was being ruled badly by Westminster
Home Rule Party represented Nationalists
Leader was John Redmund, they had 80MPs at Westminster
Small minority of Nationalists wanted a republic
These extreme Nationalists belonged to the Irish Republic Brotherhood
Secret society that wanted to fain independence through violent means
Thomas Clarke and Seán McDermott were the leaders
Act of Union 1801
Meant that Ireland was a part of United Kingdom
Ireland, Scotland, England & Wales ruled from Westminster Parliament
Ireland - 105 MPs in Westminster
Viceroy represented the king in Ireland
Most protestants were unionists
small minority expect for north-east of Ulster
Did not want Home Rule - 'Home Rule is Rome Rule'
Believed that Dublin parliament would ruin their economic prosperity - wanted to keep free access to British market
Leaders: Edward Carson + James Craig
20MPs in Westminster
New type of nationalist emerged in late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
Felt Ireland should have own government bc it had a differenr culture to Britain
Worried about Anglicisation as it would decrease the difference in culture and so they would not have right to rule themselves
Set up movements to encourage Irish culture
Spreading of English culture i.e. language, games, customs.
GAA (Gaelic Athletic Association)
1884 - Michael Cusack set up GAA in Thurles
Aims: to increase numbers of people playing hurling and Gaelic footaball, to draw up rules for the game, to organise competitions.
Clubs established in almost every parish
First All-Ireland played in 1887. Made people proud of their parish.
First experience in running a democratic organisation. Most successful cultural movement.
Started in 1893 by Eoin MacNeill & Douglas Hyde
Main aim: to stop Irish language decline
Promoted Irish by: Irish language newspaper An Claidheamh Solais (sword of ligh), training teachers called timiri that went all over Ireland teaching Irish, encouraging Irish dancing and music
Slowed down decline of Irish language
Larkin and the ITGWU (the lockout in 1913)
Many workers and cities were poorly paid
Jim Larkin set up a trade union called the ITGWU (Irish Transport and General Workers' Union)
Its aim was to fight for better wages and working conditions.
Lockout in 1913
Success of the Union worried employerx
They decided to destroy the ITGWU by telling their workers they had to leave their union or lose their jobs.
In August 13, Larkin called the workers out on strike.
Employers hit back by locking out workers until they left the union.
Lockout lasted five months. Union was defeated. Workers left union and returned to work.
House of commons main parties
The Liberal Party
The Conservatives (tories)
The Liberal Party
Led by Herbert Asquith
Lukewarm about Home Rule
Did not need the support of the Home Rule party
The Conservatives (tories)
Led by Andrew Bonar Law
Supported the unionists and were against Home Rule
The Home Rule crisis in 1912-1914
Asquith called a general election to increase taxes on the rich.
This election meant that the Liberal Party needed the support of the Home Rule Party.
Redmond demanded Home Rule for his support.
Parliament Act 1911
The Third Home Rule Bill, which was passed in the House of Commons in 1912, would become law in 1914.
How Ireland reacted to the Parliament Act 1911
Nationalists - delighted that they were getting Home Rule
Unionists - appalled
Unionist reaction to Parliament Act
Set up the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVD) to train men to resist (Home Rule) through force
Nationalist reaction to Parliament Act 1911
1913 - Formed the Irish Volunteers, led by Eoin MacNeill
Many of the leaders of the Volunteers were also in the IRB
They hoped to use the Volunteers in a fight for total independence
Threat of Civil War
Ireland now had two armed forces, therefore there was a real threat of Civil War
World War 1 begins
August 1914 -World War 1 began, Home rule postponed
Ulster Unionists joined British army to show loyalty
Redmond asked Irish Volunteers to join British army
Caused a split in Volunteers. 170,000 Volunteers agreed with Redmond known as National Volunteers.
11,000 Volunteers led by MacNeill disagreed. Wanted to stay in Ireland to ensure British gov, would not break promise.
England's difficulty is Ireland's opportunity
The IRB saw this as an opportunity to rebel and win independence.
Military Council was set up in 1915 59 plan the Rising
Members: Patrick Pearse, Thomas Clarke, Eamon Ceannt
James Connolly was invited to join council. He wanted to overthrow British Empire and set up a socialist republic in Ireland.
Casement goes to Germany
Roger Casement went to Germany to buy guns and ammunition. Rising was planned for Easter Sunday 23 April.
The ship called the Aud, which was carrying the arms arrived off Tralee on Thursday 20 April. It was captured by British navy.
IRB needed support of 11,000 strong Irish Volunteers.
Joseph Plunkett forged a document (called Castle Document) which stated that the gov was going to arrest leaders of the Volunteers.
MacNeill told Volunteers to get ready to resist.
MacNeill found out on Easter Sunday that Aud has been captured.
He also discovered Castle Document was a forgery.
He cancelled plans for fighting.
Ended any hope of a countrywide Rising.
Patrick Pearse felt only an Irish republic would ensure survival of Irish language.
He was leader of Rising.
Sunday morning - leaders of rebellion met. Knew that there was no hope of success but were influenced by blood sacrifice ideal.
Easter Monday, 24 April 1916, Volunteers and Irish Citizen Army seized key buildings around Dublin, including GPO, Four Courts, Boland's Mills, College of Surgeons.
GPO - Headquarters of Rising
Pearse read Proclamation of the Irish Republic
British caught by surprise
Friday, Pearse ordered evacuation of GPO because it was on fire.
Saturday, Pearse ordered volunteers to surrender.
Pearse hoped his death would inspire Irish to fight for independence.
Results of the Rising
Approx 500 killed, 2,500 injured
People angry about rising because of food shortages, damage to city, loss of work civilians killed and some believed it was disrespectful to Irish fighting in World War 1
Britain imposed Martial Law (military law)
British Government executed fifteen people
Sympathy grew all over Ireland and abroad for executed and most believed they were unfairly executed
Media labelled Rising 'the Sinn Féin Rising' although Sinn Féin had not been involved.
As reault, Sinn Féin became more popular
Rise of Sinn Féin
Arthur Griffith set up Sinn Féin in 1905
Wanted to win more independence than Home Rule would give
Wanted Irish MOs to withdraw from Westminster and establish government in Dublin
By 1917 Home Rule was no longer seen as enough.
Party also grew stronger with release of those interned.
aims of sinn féin
to set up a republic, completely independent of Britain
to set up a parliament in Dublin called the Dáil, independent of Westminster
Support for Sinn Féin was further boosted
British were planning to introduce conscription into Ireland - all Irish parties were against it but Sinn Féin got the credit when plan was dropped.
British arrested Sinn Féin leaders such as de Valera and Griffith
Sinn Féin won four by-elections
1918 General Election
British PM, Lloyd George called general election in 1918
Change in franchise
Young people and women were voting for first time
Favoured Sinn Féin as it was seen as a young and dynamic party
Sinn Féin became voice of Nationalist Ireland
Unionists also gained
The First Dáil
21st January 1919 - Dáil met for first time
Declared Ireland as republic
27 TDs present
2nd meeting - De Valera became president of Dáil
Arthur Griffith - Vice-President
Cathal Brugha - Minister for defense
Michael Collins - Minister for finance
Countess Markievicz - minister for labour