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Flashcards in Historians and Archaeologists Deck (36)
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1

What are historians interested in?

The types of houses people lived in
The type of food they ate
The types of clothes they wore
Tools and weapons
Burial customs
The jobs at which they worked
How they spent their leisure time
The sports people played

2

Prehistoric period

The prehistoric period is before writing was used – we rely on archaeology for our evidence of this period

3

Historic period

The historic period is when people used writing

4

What is a source

It is evidence, for example documents and pictures, used by historians to find out what happened in the past

5

sources examples

written, spoken, visual or an object from the past

6

Primary source

Comes directly from the event, eg. photograph, diaries, speeches

7

Secondary source

Evidence that comes not directly from the event, eg. history books, movies, tv shows

8

Where you can find sources


•Archives
•Libraries
•Museums

9

Steps historians take

Read or look at the source carefully
2.Ask themselves
•Where was it created?
•When was it made?
•Why was it made?
•By whom?
Examine how close the author was to the event being described
Judge if the source is reliable
Use as many sources as possible to make sure their story is accurate

10

Time and place rule

Examining how close the author was to the event being described

11

Cross-checking

Using as many sources as possible to make sure their story is accurate

12

how to judge the reliability of sources

•Bias
•Accuracy
•Exaggeration
•Propaganda
•Time and place
•Opinions

13

BC/BCE

event happened before Christ

14

AD/CE

happened after the birth of Christ

15

archeology

The study of the remains left by our ancestors

16

artefacts

Objects made by humans, e.g. coins, tools and pottery

17

excavate

When archaeologists dig in the ground looking for remains from the past

18

sources

Evidence, for example documents and pictures, used by historians to find out what happened in the past

19

survey

A study carried out on a site before archaeologists start digging

20

how do objects end up in the ground?

Some are lost
They can be put in the ground for safe-keeping and forgotten about
In pre-Christian times they were buried with dead people
Buildings abandoned and over time covered in soil

21

good conditions for preserving objects

very cold conditions
•very wet conditions
•very dry conditions
•e.g. bodies have been found in bogs in Ireland

22

choosing sites of excavations

research archaeology
rescue archaeology
accident

23

research archaeology

when a site is chosen because there is evidence that objects could be found

24

rescue archaeology

archaeologists sometimes dig on a site before a new road or building is built to make sure no evidence from the past is lost

25

excavation steps

1. preparation
2. the dig
3. evaluation

26

excavating a site - preparation

-Survey of site is carried out. Narrows down where to start digging.
-geophysical survey is carried out. Similar to x-ray, they use a machine to look at soil underneath surface. Can tell how much earth has been disturbed by human activity.
-Dig test trenches to get some idea of amount of remains expected to be discovered.
-Aerial photographs taken. Show size of site and pick up features missed on ground.
-Detailed plan is made. Site divided into numbered one-metre square areas to investigate.

27

excavating a site - the dig

Topsoil removed, often with JCB. Spades & pickaxes also used.
Once topsoil cleared, archaeologists can begin to look for remains.
Use a number of tools during excavation:
-layers of earth scrapped away using trowel
-hand-pick used to loosen soil
-when object discovered, have to be careful not to damage. Use brushes and toothbrushes so its not damaged.
-photograph taken after discovery

28

what soil can tell about the past

timber poles used for building houses leave dark round patches called post-holes
square dark patch suggests fireplace
layer of dark soil suggests site was destroyed by fire

29

dating an object

coin with sword, coins usually have dates
pollen at site,
artwork & design can tell age, eg. piece of pottery

30

methods of dating an object

stratigraphy
carbon dating
dendrochronology